The Ross Rifle: Canada’s Nightmare

Canada became involved in the First World War thanks to Great Britain. Canada, being a dominion of the British Empire, was entitled to join in any war that Britain was in. The Dominion of Canada joined the war effort in August 1914 and the CEF (Canadian Expeditionary Force) soon arrived in Europe in spring of 1915.

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The Ross Rifle’s Firing System

Along with the Canadian troops came one of history’s most infamous weapons: the Ross Mark III Rifle. The Ross originated in 1902 after Canada’s government chose to create its own weapon instead of the British Lee Enfield, which would have cost the nation much more to produce. Charles Ross, a legendary Scottish hunter, Baronet, veteran of the Boer Wars, and businessman; was tasked with the creation of the firearm. Canada’s Mounted Police, the legendary ‘Mounties’, were given the first rifles to see how they would operate in the field. The weapon immediately received negative reviews. In 1913, the Mark III arrived on the scene to equip the Canadian troops heading off to Europe.

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Canadian Recruitment Poster

The Ross had a straight-pull bolt action system which was a strange choice for a firing system. Most rifles of the period were regular bolt action, including the Lee Enfield. The Ross was extremely cumbersome to handle in the trenches. It was long, heavy, and its bayonet commonly fell off while firing. The weapon also became clogged easily in the Flanders mud and rendered the bolt action useless. If a minor jam occurred, it was common for the problem to worsen as a forceful kick to the bolt would damage the firing system. The bolt also could malfunction and slam into the face of the user if put back together improperly. Along with that, British ammunition would not fit in the Ross and made things horrible if ammunition was mixed up. The Ross was notorious among Canadian troops. An officer said that “It is nothing short of murder to send men out against the enemy with such a weapon.” The jamming was a massive problem in the trenches, causing Canadian troops problems at the front. Many Canadian troops quickly threw their Ross rifles away in favour of Enfields or perhaps a Mauser. Strangely, the Ross preformed superbly in the hands of snipers and marksmen, using them to great effect.

The Ross was officially replaced in 1916 with the SMLE along with the infamous leader of Canada’s war effort- Sam Hughes. The rifle was actually found to be successful once a British weapons manufacturer got his hands on it and fixed the few problems in the mechanism which drove Canadians insane at the front. By then, the Ross’ reputation was so tainted that it was too late, and the rifle went down in history as one of the most infamous and notorious weapons of all time.

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Gebirgsjäger: The Alpine Warriors of the German Army

The Gebirgsjäger were the alpine troops of the German army during the Second World War, serving in many regions throughout the war. Using pack animals, these elite troops of the German army were tasked to defending and attacking mountainous areas where many regular troops would be unable to fight in. After the Anschluss, the German annexation of Austria, the Gebirgsjäger were formed, inspired by the Tyrolean Jägers of the Austro-Hungarian Army in the First World War.

The Gebirgsjäger wore a patch with an edelweiss depicted.The edelweiss is a flower found normally in alpine conditions and high altitudes. They wore the regular feldgrau uniform, but with hiking boots, and sometimes skis or snowshoes. They also wore a Bergmutze, similar to the cap of Austrian troops in the First World War. The cap could be buttoned under the chin to provide warmth in freezing temperatures. As well as their specific uniform, Gebirgsjäger carried a special carbine called the G33/40, produced in Czechoslovakia. The steel plate at the bottom was used to crunch into ice to give a soldier a stabilizer while scaling rocks and mountains. A small number were produced, but they were perfect for mountain warfare. Many Gebirgsjäger used Russian weapons because they were better designed for cold weather.

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Gebirgsjäger in the Russian mountains

With the German Blitzkrieg into Poland and Norway, many Gebirgsjäger were placed in Army Group South. The Blitzkrieg smashed through Poland towards Russia, and by 1941, Operation Barbarossa was in full swing. The Gebirgsjager fought through the mountainous country of Ukraine. The 1st Mountain Division managed to capture the city of Lviv (then Lvov). They crashed through the Stalin Line and into the Caucasus. The Gebirgsjäger lifted a German flag on top of Mount Elbrus. The Gebirgsjäger also fought ferociously in Hungary as well as Northern Greece.

In 1942, Operation Edelweiss was launched in an attempt to capture oil fields in the Caucasus. Spearheaded by Gebirgsjäger units, the Germans swept through Baku and along the Volga River. The Gebirgsjäger assaulted the western slopes of Mt. Elbrus along with Romanian Mountain Troops. They were held by the Soviet rear guard, eventually capturing the mountains with some difficulty. They attempted to reach the coast near Sukhumi in order to outflank Soviet positions, but poor weather and stiff resistance held their advance. Over the operation, the Germans took some 10,000 casualties, but managed to squeeze their way towards Stalingrad.

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Gebirgsjäger cap badge

A recurring theme for mountain troops was heavy casualties with success. The inexhaustible number of Soviet troops managed to hold the alpine troops in battle, but the Gebirgsjäger deserve credit for their abilities and quality throughout the Second World War.

Book Review: African Kaiser

African Kaiser by Robert Gaudi focuses on the little-known theatre of the First World War- East Africa. A semi-biography of General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck and semi-recollection of the East African campaigns, this book gives a lot of information in all 422 of it pages. The book contains maps of Africa circa 1914 and some photos related to von Lettow and the German Schutztruppe. The book covers a lengthy period of German colonialism in Africa, mentioning their backgrounds and the initial unwillingness to participate in imperialism. Von Lettow, “the Lion of Africa”, is one of the Great War’s most fascinating generals, and Gaudi makes sure that his readers are fully aware.

Praise: This book provides a large amount of information that I did not know, and was certainly interested in. Gaudi uses a very smooth writing style which is interesting to read and presents facts in a good way. The book discusses Germany’s background of colonization and Otto von Bismarck’s reluctance to do so. There is information on the Herero Rebellion in German Southwest Africa, the Meji-Meji Rebellion, the Schutztruppe, the diseases troops faced while on campaign in Africa, and much more. Gaudi also uses many Swahili words throughout the book to convey the language of the askari. The extensive bibliography indicates a good use of primary sources as well. African Kaiser is full of adventure into the heart of East Africa, portrayals of vicious bush fighting, and, of course, Oberleutnant Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. Interestingly, Gaudi provides a perspective in which one finds it hard to take sides. Neither side is portrayed in such a way that is superior in morals to the other, and that is uncommon in history books. There is almost a familiar connection with British officer Richard Meinertzhagen, as his diaries are used to give a British perspective. The South African units led by Jan Smuts are also covered well.

Criticism:

African Kaiser begins in an extremely strange way, set of the Estonian coast. A large portion of this book seemed to be aimless and unrelated really to the main point of the book. It was only till pg.110 that one sees the first glimpses of German East Africa. There seems to be a lot of talking about pointless things such as the Boxer Rebellion or how certain worms and ailments affect the human body. While I can understand Gaudi for putting these in the book, I am not sure such a large amount of time needed to be spent on it. Yes, von Lettow served in China, and yes the strange beginning ties in with the rest of the book once you read the full chapter (at a stretch), but it felt sometimes as though there was a large amount of “time wasting” and delaying the point that this is a biography of von Lettow and East Africa.

I certainly enjoyed reading African Kaiser, but there were flaws that made it stray from the point. A large focus of this book was the slow process of German colonization, and tying it with von Lettow at any opportune moment. I was skeptical of the book, but when Gaudi began talking about the First World War, the book redeemed most of my doubts. The book is well written and draws readers in, and it is an interesting topic to write about.

Rating: 4/5