Russia was in turmoil during the 14th century. The Mongolian Hordes had controlled Western Russia for years in what was called the “Mongol Yoke,” but its decline was tearing the nation apart into small kingdoms and duchies. The Kievan Rus had been dead for years, causing many problems in Russia, for they lost their major territories. By 1380, the newly formed Grand Duchy of Moscow was ready to strike. The Grand Prince of Moscow, Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy, decided that the weaker Tataro-Mongols would be vulnerable enough to attack in order to drive them from their country. Mamai, the current khan of the Mongols, had sought to reaffirm his position in Russia and remove the Muscovite threat. The stage was set for Russia’s most important medieval battle.
Dmitri allied with a coalition of smaller Russian principalities to form a large amy to cast out the Tataro-Mongols. Marching under the flag of the Russian Orthodoxy, the coalition of 60,000 marched to the Don River near modern-day Tula. Mamai’s horde numbered 150,000 men including Genoese crossbowmen. The Genoese were the most formidable mercenaries in the middle ages along with the Swiss. On paper, the skilled horsemen and deadly crossbowmen held every position of power on an open plain.
On September 8th, the Russian forces positioned themselves in the Don watershed. Dmitri’s forces lined up in three lines. The largest regiment positioned themselves in the middle with two regiments on either side. A vanguard was placed ahead of them as was a front regiment. Behind the Russian main line was Dmitri and other generals. Russian troops were also placed in the forests nearby to ambush enemy forces. Mamai’s Tataro-Mongols lined up around their Genoese mercenaries in two main lines. The Mongols attacked at 11 in the morning and pushed back the forward Russian troops. The Russians formed a defensive line and received the onslaught of Mongol horsemen. Dmitri’s troops were outflanked and surrounded by the Mongols. In extreme danger, Dmitri called in his troops from the woods to ambush the horsemen. The Muscovites quickly rallied to crush the enemy who routed from the battlefield.
The battle did not officially expel the Mongols from Russia, but the battle was extremely important in Russia’s history. Mamai was later assassinated in Crimea. The battle of Kulikovo Field allowed the expansion of Moscow to occur in order for the Mongol Yoke to be thrown off. 100 years of Russian attacks would later throw out the Tarto-Mongols at the Battle of the Ugra River in 1480. Russia was open for expansion and soon would be one of the most important world nations.