Spaniards in the Highlands: The Battle of Glen Sheil

The War of the Quadruple Alliance began in 1717 in the hopes of defeating Spanish power in Europe post-succession. The alliance of Great Britain, France, the Dutch, and the Holy Roman Empire united to prevent Spain under Philip V from breaking the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). The treaty gave Austria the Spanish Netherlands and parts of Italy while England controlled Gibraltar and parts of the Americas from France. Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, reminiscent of the legendary Richelieu, controlled the Spanish king and convinced him into marriages and the rebuilding of a navy. The Quadruple Alliance began to worry, and rightfully so, as Spain was preparing for war. Most battles were fought throughout Italy in 1718 and 1719, but the Spanish created a plan to invade the British Isles.

Irish exile James Butler, Duke of Ormonde, created the idea to overthrow King George I in favour of James “the Pretender”, son of James II. Catholic Spain supported the invasion and began gathering troops to send over to Ireland. With Spanish troops ready to sail for Britain, Butler dispatched his fleet. Just like the Spanish Armada of 1588, a massive storm destroyed the ships off the coast of Galicia. Just 300 Spaniards managed to arrive in Scotland after being blown off course. George Keith and his Spanish troops landed in County Ross where they managed to get the support of Jacobite highlanders. At Eilean Donan Castle, Jacobites learned of British ships sent to attack them.

HMS Worcester, HMS Enterprise, and HMS Flamborough; the strongest of the ships; arrived near Eilean Donan and sent a parlay ashore to negotiate. When the highlanders opened fire, the British rushed back to their ships and began pounding the castle with shell. British Marines snuck ashore on the night of May 10 and caught the defenders by surpise, forcing their surrender. With a good portion of their support gone, Keith was struggling to keep his operations going. The Spaniards and Jacobites fell back to a mountain pass- Glenn Sheil.

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The Battle of Glen Shiel, 10 June 1719

The Spaniards and Jacobites created defenses at Glen Shiel that bisected the road. 200 men of the Galicia Regiment were supported by members of the Clans Mackenzie, MacKinnon, Cameron, McGregor, Murray, and Keith. The entire force numbered about 1,000 men. British forces under the command of Gen. Joseph Wightman arrived on June 10. Montagu’s Regiment and Clayton’s Regiment were sent to defeat the Jacobites along with the Huttel Dutch Regiment, a company of grenadiers, 120 dragoons, and four mortars. The Galicians were positioned on a hill overlooking the enemy while Scottish troops manned the barricades on the road. Murray’s troops were mortared and then charged by the British, cracking after an hour of fighting. George Seaforth attacked the Jacobite left, but he was wounded in the arm by the Galicians in the assault. The flanks began to crumble and the Spanish line caved in, routing uphill away from the deadly fire of the British troops. The Spanish were captured and imprisoned in Edinburgh till the end of the war in early 1720. Keith later became Prussian ambassador to Spain, but the Spanish attacks on Scotland failed spectacularly in a widely overlooked conflict of the early 18th century.

To view a map of the battle drawn by Lt. John Bastide at the National Library of Scotland, click here.


Johann von Tilly: the Holy Roman Empire’s Underrated Hero

The Thirty Years War raged across Europe in the 17th century with the Habsburg powers of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire clashing with Saxony, Sweden, France, and many others. While many place Albrecht von Wallenstein at the height of Habsburg strength, one commander of the Catholic League forces is overlooked- Johann Tserclaes, count von Tilly.

Johann Tserclaes, Count von Tilly

Tilly was born in the Spanish Netherlands in 1559 to Jesuits, the “warriors” of the Catholic Church. Tilly’s first combat experiences were in the 80 Years War against the Dutch with the Spanish. When Tilly was 35, he joined the Habsburg forces to fight the Turks in the Hungarian plains.

In 1609, Maximilian I of Bavaria created the Catholic League as opposition to the Protestant Union and Tilly was called upon to reform the Bavarian forces. The league would offer military support to any of its allies when provoked, and in 1618, the Holy Roman Empire called upon the League for aid. Ferdinand II claimed to own Bohemia & the Palatinate, ruled over by Frederick V, since his father had previously ruled the land. In an attempt to reclaim their lands, the Habsburg monarch turned to his Catholic allies to the west. Tilly’s forces combined in 1619 at Wurzburg, where the entire force numbered around 20,000. 7,000 of these men were Bavarian soldiers whom Tilly had previously commanded. The Bohemian revolt spread into Moravia, Styria, the Tyrol, and other parts of the Holy Roman Empire.

On November 8, 1620, Tilly’s Catholic forces clashed with the Czechs at the Battle of White Mountain. Outnumbering his opponent by almost 10,000 men, Tilly knew this battle would clear the way to Prague and it was imperative for him to win. The Czech forces of the Bohemian Estates (hereby known as the Estates) positioned themselves on high ground overlooking a valley. Artillery was places throughout the Estates’ lines while the middle was populated by Czechs and Austrian mercenaries. The Imperial forces under Count von Tilly were set in three lines with Cossacks from Poland and Spanish cavalry on the flanks. Imperial cavalry on the right wing charged the Estate positions to which their commander, Christian Anhalt, could not respond to. The left collapsed as the Estate infantry and cavalry routed. Anhalt commanded his middle to attack the Imperial forces but Tilly absorbed these assaults and managed to surround the Czech, who was captured. Irish Catholic Henry Fitzsimon led his troops to crush the rest of the Estate forces and Tilly achieved a stunning victory. Tilly continued past Prague and into Germany where he continued his string of impressive victories, much to the admiration of Ferdinand II.

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Estate forces being surrounded by Catholic cavalry at White Mountain

By 1625, Christian IV of Denmark sought ambitions to the south in the ever expanding 30 Years War. Tilly and Albrecht von Wallenstein led their forces north in order to confront the Protestant forces and in 1626, Tilly confronted the enemy at the Battle of Lutter. Tilly’s artillery was used to a massive advantage and when they repulsed a Danish assault, a cavalry charge routed the reorganizing Danes from the battlefield. Lutter cost the Danes some 6,000 men out of their 20,000; Tilly lost 200 men. With the Imperials in Jutland, Christian IV was forced to sign the Treaty of Lubeck which made him abandon support to the German Protestants.

Tilly was appointed commander of the Imperial Army afterthe Wallenstein debacle. Wallenstein’s power hungry manner and ignorance toward the Emperor cost Wallenstein his life. With Count von Tilly in command, Ferdinand II ordered him to move against the Swedish forces of Gustavus Adolphus who had invaded Germany in 1630. The Swedes had adopted Maurician tactics of the 80 Years War and created arguably the best fighting force of the pike and shot era. Tilly’s siege of Magdeburg ended in a victory, but his invasion of Saxony cost him an important ally. At Breitenfeld in 1631, Gustavus Adolphus’ forces devastated Tilly as his flank attempt was refused and eventually slaughtered by the Swedish-Saxon force. Tilly was forced to retreat back to Bohemia after losing 27,000 soldiers. Tilly positioned his troops on the River Lech and Gustavus Adolphus attacked rapidly. Tilly was wounded and died two weeks later.

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A statue of Tilly in Munich, Bavaria

While not the most notable general of the 30 Years War, Johann von Tilly remains an intriguing man whom we do not explore often. From being a Flemish soldier in the armies of the Holy Roman Empire to fighting off Czechs in the Bohemian Estate Wars, Tilly proved to be a major player of early 17th century warfare. His quick and comitted decisions led to many victories, but also drastic defeat at Breitenfeld. His quick death in a minor engagement really puts a stamp on his life and makes one realise how quickly even a general can fall from grace.


Bernardo O’Higgins: Chile’s Finest General

O’Higgins was born on August 20, 1778 to an Irish father and a Spanish mother. His father, Ambrose, was elected Prime Minister of Chile in 1788, paving the way for his son to become an important figure in Chile’s history. Bernardo left for Peru to attend college, later travelling to England and Spain. By 1801, he returned to Chile after his father’s death. When he returned, he became involved in politics and was a key member of the nationalist movement.

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Bernardo O’Higgins

In 1808, Spain was in turmoil as French armies swept through the country. Seeing their opportunity, many South Americans rose up against imperial rule. Two years later, politicians in Santiago announced independence and elected new leaders of the rebelling nation. The initial process was peaceful, as Chilean nationalists did not bother with relations to the Viceroyalty of Peru (one of Spain’s two American colonial regions). However, Spain returned with force in 1814 and attempted to reclaim Chile and other rebellious nations. At the Battle of Rancagua on Oct 1-2, Bernardo O’Higgins led Chilean troops against veteran Spanish forces of the Napoleonic Wars. O’Higgins was crushed. Without reinforcements from Santiago, the Chileans suffered some 1,000 casualties out of an initial force of 2,000. This battle marked the beginning of the Reconquista of America.

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The Battle of Chacabuco

O’Higgins fled to neighbouring Argentina where he and Argentine nationalist, Jose de San Martin, began forming a new army. In January 1817, the two returned to Chile with their new force, the Army of the Andes. San Martin’s tactical genius and O’Higgins’ decisiveness won the Battle of Chacabuco. The Battle of Maipu was on April 5, 1818 near Santiago. The 5,000-strong Army of the Andes attacked Manuel Osorio’s Spanish force. Using his grenadiers and cazadores to his advantage, O’Higgins countered Spanish attacks while San Martin attacked with the main force and artillery. The victory at Maipu is viewed as the decisive battle for Chile’s independence.

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O’Higgins (left without the bicorne) speaking with San Martin at the Battle of Maipu

O’Higgins went on to create the Chilean Navy later that year, as well as becoming the leader of Chile itself. While in power, he tried removing power of the oligarchy, but failed to do so. Regular attacks on Spanish Royalists and other supporters tainted his reign, as his campaigns became known as the Guerra de Muerte. O’Higgins abdicated in 1823 after losing popular support, and was exiled to Argentina. Years later, O’Higgins and his family were allowed to return but cardiac issues caused him many problems. He became an avid supporter of the navy and colonization before his death in 1842. His last words were “Magallanes…magallanes” which showed his pro-colonisation ideals. Chile did control the Strait of Magellan later on after his death.

O’Higgins is revered in Chile to this day. Massive celebrations occurred on the bicentenary of his birth in 1978, and a Chilean football team is named in his honour. While not as remembered as Bolivar, O’Higgins was an advocat of Latin American independence, one of Chile’s most important founding fathers, and a bold general to be remembered.

Book Review: Dutch Armies of the 80 Years’ War 1568-1648 (2)

Osprey Publishing recently released the second part of their Dutch 80YW Men at Arms Series. I reviewed Bouko de Groot’s first title already, so it’s time to complete the series. Book two covers the cavalry, artillery, and engineers which de Groot mentions were key to the war. The war was full or sieges and a surprising amount of trench warfare. As well as Maurice of Nassau’s infantry reforms, he also changed the cavalry and used much more artillery than his Spanish opponents. The sieges of major cities would require strong artillery, so Maurice made sure his Dutch forces were equipped well. His engineers were also trained in bridging, fieldworks, entrenchments, and more.

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de Groot’s previous book was great and sold out on the Osprey Website quickly according to their company blog. This book is reminiscent of his last work. Each of the branches is split up clearly so you can see the evolution form the three stages of conflict. A map showing all of the sieges in the war is provided for you as well to give the reader an idea of how important siege tactics would become during the war. There are some interesting illustrations, one of which is part of the drill manual for firing a pistol on horseback. Many people who study pike & shot era warfare know of the complex manuals of musketeer drills, but this was the first I had seen of a cavalry drill. Bouko de Groot gives specifications of each artillery piece the Dutch used throughout the war and Gerry Embleton’s colour plates are superb, showing limbered artillery. One interesting point the author makes is that “[the] 80 Years’ War changed the craft of war into a science,” and his section on engineering is a proof of that. From an improvised dam made of horses to Friese ruiter, the engineers of Maurice’s army were incredibly capable and quick thinking. There is also a general round up of the whole army towards the back and it talks about weapons, munitions, formations, and command structures which is nice to review.


The map at the beginning is very informative, but extremely jumbled and hard to understand. It takes a while to locate a specific battle you are trying to find. In some of the sections, I was also left with wanting more. I would like to have known what other field fortifications the engineers made, how forts were built, more information on the cavalry such as the horses they used, and more on trench warfare. The notion of Dutch and Spanish soldiers tossing grenades at one another, firing wheelocks at close range, and getting stuck in with a sword is absolutely fantastic, and I was left with a feeling of not being satiated.

The book overall is very good and if you have the infantry book, I would highly recommend this book as a companion. Embleton’s plates do not disappoint, de Groot explains everything a novice would wonder about equipment (improving much on last time), and covers the army as a whole. De Groot also has a Facebook page devoted to the 80 Years War, so why not give it a look here. There is info on flags, reenactments, and some amazing contemporary prints.

Rating: 4/5

The Rif War: Prelude to Spain’s Civil War

Morocco’s horrible political dealings had ended poorly and European nations prayed on the weakened country. In 1912, Spain and France agreed on the creation of a Spanish colony in northern Morocco along the Rif Valley on the Mediterranean. With Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War, they were eager to create a new colony. The Rif was occupied by a large, fiercely independent Berber population.

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Berber guerillas in the Rif Mountains

Spanish troops attempted to pacify the Berbers, but Abd El-Krim, a member of the Beni Urriaguel, decided to unite the Berbers against the Spanish. Establishing the Rif Republic in 1920, El-Krim banded together guerillas to resist the Spanish troops in the area. The Berber tribesmen were not numerous at all, but were great at skirmishing against their enemies. They had traditionally repelled Arab invasions of their home in the Rif Mountains. The Spanish would be one of their toughest challenges yet. General Manuel Fernandez Silvestre commanded the Spanish troops at the front, but quick attacks by El-Krim forced him to abandon his position at Anwal on July 22, 1921. The Spaniards were hit quickly and were not prepared whatsoever, suffering staggering casualties. Silvestre was killed along with some 10,000 Spaniards and Spain was smashed back to the coast.

Things stayed the same until 1924 when the Spanish government snapped into action. Miguel Primo de Rivera recalled Spanish troops to form a defensive line at Tetuan and came under major scrutiny. Abd El-Krim and his Muslim Berber army took control of the land the Spanish evacuated and established a law code, built roads, and created trade agreements. He turned towards the French colony in Morocco and decided to unite his Republic with the other Berbers. Attacking Fes, the Berbers caused heavy French casualties in a quick ambush. The French made the decision to ally with the Spanish in order to combat the Berber threats to their colonies. Philippe Petain took control of the French in Morocco and in a collaboration with the Spanish, the French marched 20,000 troops to deal with the threat. Spain landed 18,000 soldiers at Alhucemas Bay in September 1925 and the two sides joined to fight the 10,000 Berbers. Abd El-Krim’s guerillas couldn’t withstand such force and began to be pushed back from the coast. The Spanish captured Ajdir on October 2 and dealt a huge blow to the Riffians.

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Spanish Foreign Legionnaires defending Alhucemas

By March the next year, El-Krim had been so badly defeated that he asked for peace talks with the Europeans. The Spanish refused and continued to hammer Berber troops out of their lands. El-Krim was captured by the French in April and he was forced to unconditionally surrender. He and his family were sent to Reunion in exile and Morocco was reclaimed by Spain and France. The Rif War sparked thoughts of independence in the area and would later spring to life after World War Two. This also marked the beginning of the Spanish problems. Soon, the Spanish Civil War would tear the country in two and serve as the training ground for the European nations before World War Two.

Indochine: The Kindling for Vietnam (Part 1)

Ken Burns and and Lynn Novick’s “The Vietnam War” is a new 10 part miniseries on the conflicts between France, the US, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, the Viet Minh, and the Viet Cong over a period of about twenty years. The French presence in their colony of Indochine, or Indochina, was regarded as the instigation for the Vietnam War in which the US was flung into a massive conflict across the Pacific. It is important to understand the background of Vietnam’s relationship with the Western Nations before looking at the US involvement.

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Battle of Kep, 1884

The first Franco-Vietnamese relations were based on Catholicism in the 17th century as missionaries arrived to spread their religion across the world. The French East India Company set up trading posts in 1680 as their presence in the region grew stronger. The French were in India, Siam, and now Vietnam in the 17th century. Things soon turned sour as local Vietnamese people resisted the French missionaries. 200 years later, French ships arrived to rescue some captured missionaries and sunk Vietnamese vessels on their way.

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French Admiral de Genouilly

Napoleon III ordered the end of persecution in Vietnam of French Catholics, and sent Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly and Spanish allies on a Punitive Expedition called the Cochinchina Campaign in 1858. They captured Tourane (Modern-day Da Nang) but were eventually besieged themselves. Franco-Spanish troops in Saigon were also under siege and French troops tied up in Italy and China could not help. Francois Page replaced de Grenouilly s commander of the French forces, and reinforcements arrived in 1860 from China. Tourane was given up in favour of keeping Saigon, so the city was reclaimed by Vietnamese troops. At Ky Hoa, the Vietnamese army of 35,000 were pushed back, allowing French and Spanish troops room in Saigon. The French repeatedly offered peace but each time it was refused. With the fall of Vinh Long, the Vietnamese were in no place to win and peace was organized in June 1862. The Treaty of Saigon gave three provinces to the French and three more were added in 1867.

French expeditions into Tonkin soon exploded as resistance from Vietnamese members of the Chinese Black Flag Army and in 1873, French officer Francis Garnier was killed. The Tonkin Campaign began in 1883 as Henri Riviere brought French troops into Hanoi in an attempt to capture the region. The Black Flag Army were victorious at Paper Bridge, and Riviere was killed. The Tonkin Expeditionary Corps was sent to reinforce the French troops already there and was led by General Alexandre-Eugene Bouet. A victory at Nam Dinh pushed Vietnamese forces to the edge and the French troops had an opportunity to achieve a quick victory. French forces captured the Hue River at the Battle of Thuan An and forced four more provinces to be under French ownership.

At Phu Hoai and Palan, the French were pushed back by the Black Flag Army and the French outpost at Hai Douong fell to Vietnamese troops. The French were in trouble and had wasted their opportunity to end the campaign swiftly. In December, the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps met the Black Flag Army at Son Tay and the battle raged from the 11th until the 17th as the French bombarded their enemies and repeatedly attacked a set of redoubts. After a disastrous counterattack by the Black Flag Army, French Foreign Legionnaires and fusiliers-marins stormed Son Tay and claimed victory for the French.

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The Battle of Bac Ninh

In 1884, Chinese support of the Guangxi Army at Bac Ninh failed as 11,000 French troops crushed them under leadership of Charles-Theodore Millot. The sheer numbers of French troops was the most in the entire Tonkin campaign, managing to field two brigades including artillery. The force was made up of line infantry, Algerian tirailleurs, Foreign Legionnaires, marines, and Turcos. A Chinese ambush at Bac Le in 1884 sparked the Sino-French War over Tonkin. The French navy secured a massive victory at Fuzhou and allowed the French to create a blockade of Chinese ports. The French followed and crushed the Guangxi Army at the Battle of Kep and in retaliation to their high casualties, they massacred droves of Chinese wounded and prisoners to the dismay of the Western Powers. By 1885, the French were on the doorstep of Lang Son which was the main supply line for Chinese troops in Vietnam. After a series of engagements, the French managed to claim victory and the Guangxi were forced to retreat yet again. At Hoa Moc, the French were checked hard suffering some 300 casualties but opened the way to relieving a French outpost nearby. The Guangxi were thrown out of Tonkin the Battle of Dong Dang on Feburary 23rd. The French entered Southern China and were repulsed suffering heavy casualties yet again. The French finally were victorious at the Battle of Phu Lam Tao on March 25th 1885.

French troops during the Sino-French War

The French finally had Tonkin and Annam in June 1885 after years of bloody war. However, the locals still were against the French and constant attacks on supply routes along the Red River angered the French. Though Tonkin was French, it was still very much Vietnamese.

Part Two will discuss Indochina, French influences in the area, and how war broke out yet again in the Indochina War including the legendary of Dien Bien Phu.