Bernardo O’Higgins: Chile’s Finest General

O’Higgins was born on August 20, 1778 to an Irish father and a Spanish mother. His father, Ambrose, was elected Prime Minister of Chile in 1788, paving the way for his son to become an important figure in Chile’s history. Bernardo left for Peru to attend college, later travelling to England and Spain. By 1801, he returned to Chile after his father’s death. When he returned, he became involved in politics and was a key member of the nationalist movement.

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Bernardo O’Higgins

In 1808, Spain was in turmoil as French armies swept through the country. Seeing their opportunity, many South Americans rose up against imperial rule. Two years later, politicians in Santiago announced independence and elected new leaders of the rebelling nation. The initial process was peaceful, as Chilean nationalists did not bother with relations to the Viceroyalty of Peru (one of Spain’s two American colonial regions). However, Spain returned with force in 1814 and attempted to reclaim Chile and other rebellious nations. At the Battle of Rancagua on Oct 1-2, Bernardo O’Higgins led Chilean troops against veteran Spanish forces of the Napoleonic Wars. O’Higgins was crushed. Without reinforcements from Santiago, the Chileans suffered some 1,000 casualties out of an initial force of 2,000. This battle marked the beginning of the Reconquista of America.

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The Battle of Chacabuco

O’Higgins fled to neighbouring Argentina where he and Argentine nationalist, Jose de San Martin, began forming a new army. In January 1817, the two returned to Chile with their new force, the Army of the Andes. San Martin’s tactical genius and O’Higgins’ decisiveness won the Battle of Chacabuco. The Battle of Maipu was on April 5, 1818 near Santiago. The 5,000-strong Army of the Andes attacked Manuel Osorio’s Spanish force. Using his grenadiers and cazadores to his advantage, O’Higgins countered Spanish attacks while San Martin attacked with the main force and artillery. The victory at Maipu is viewed as the decisive battle for Chile’s independence.

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O’Higgins (left without the bicorne) speaking with San Martin at the Battle of Maipu

O’Higgins went on to create the Chilean Navy later that year, as well as becoming the leader of Chile itself. While in power, he tried removing power of the oligarchy, but failed to do so. Regular attacks on Spanish Royalists and other supporters tainted his reign, as his campaigns became known as the Guerra de Muerte. O’Higgins abdicated in 1823 after losing popular support, and was exiled to Argentina. Years later, O’Higgins and his family were allowed to return but cardiac issues caused him many problems. He became an avid supporter of the navy and colonization before his death in 1842. His last words were “Magallanes…magallanes” which showed his pro-colonisation ideals. Chile did control the Strait of Magellan later on after his death.

O’Higgins is revered in Chile to this day. Massive celebrations occurred on the bicentenary of his birth in 1978, and a Chilean football team is named in his honour. While not as remembered as Bolivar, O’Higgins was an advocat of Latin American independence, one of Chile’s most important founding fathers, and a bold general to be remembered.

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Book Review: Dutch Armies of the 80 Years’ War 1568-1648 (2)

Osprey Publishing recently released the second part of their Dutch 80YW Men at Arms Series. I reviewed Bouko de Groot’s first title already, so it’s time to complete the series. Book two covers the cavalry, artillery, and engineers which de Groot mentions were key to the war. The war was full or sieges and a surprising amount of trench warfare. As well as Maurice of Nassau’s infantry reforms, he also changed the cavalry and used much more artillery than his Spanish opponents. The sieges of major cities would require strong artillery, so Maurice made sure his Dutch forces were equipped well. His engineers were also trained in bridging, fieldworks, entrenchments, and more.

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Praise:

de Groot’s previous book was great and sold out on the Osprey Website quickly according to their company blog. This book is reminiscent of his last work. Each of the branches is split up clearly so you can see the evolution form the three stages of conflict. A map showing all of the sieges in the war is provided for you as well to give the reader an idea of how important siege tactics would become during the war. There are some interesting illustrations, one of which is part of the drill manual for firing a pistol on horseback. Many people who study pike & shot era warfare know of the complex manuals of musketeer drills, but this was the first I had seen of a cavalry drill. Bouko de Groot gives specifications of each artillery piece the Dutch used throughout the war and Gerry Embleton’s colour plates are superb, showing limbered artillery. One interesting point the author makes is that “[the] 80 Years’ War changed the craft of war into a science,” and his section on engineering is a proof of that. From an improvised dam made of horses to Friese ruiter, the engineers of Maurice’s army were incredibly capable and quick thinking. There is also a general round up of the whole army towards the back and it talks about weapons, munitions, formations, and command structures which is nice to review.

Criticism:

The map at the beginning is very informative, but extremely jumbled and hard to understand. It takes a while to locate a specific battle you are trying to find. In some of the sections, I was also left with wanting more. I would like to have known what other field fortifications the engineers made, how forts were built, more information on the cavalry such as the horses they used, and more on trench warfare. The notion of Dutch and Spanish soldiers tossing grenades at one another, firing wheelocks at close range, and getting stuck in with a sword is absolutely fantastic, and I was left with a feeling of not being satiated.

The book overall is very good and if you have the infantry book, I would highly recommend this book as a companion. Embleton’s plates do not disappoint, de Groot explains everything a novice would wonder about equipment (improving much on last time), and covers the army as a whole. De Groot also has a Facebook page devoted to the 80 Years War, so why not give it a look here. There is info on flags, reenactments, and some amazing contemporary prints.

Rating: 4/5

The Rif War: Prelude to Spain’s Civil War

Morocco’s horrible political dealings had ended poorly and European nations prayed on the weakened country. In 1912, Spain and France agreed on the creation of a Spanish colony in northern Morocco along the Rif Valley on the Mediterranean. With Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War, they were eager to create a new colony. The Rif was occupied by a large, fiercely independent Berber population.

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Berber guerillas in the Rif Mountains

Spanish troops attempted to pacify the Berbers, but Abd El-Krim, a member of the Beni Urriaguel, decided to unite the Berbers against the Spanish. Establishing the Rif Republic in 1920, El-Krim banded together guerillas to resist the Spanish troops in the area. The Berber tribesmen were not numerous at all, but were great at skirmishing against their enemies. They had traditionally repelled Arab invasions of their home in the Rif Mountains. The Spanish would be one of their toughest challenges yet. General Manuel Fernandez Silvestre commanded the Spanish troops at the front, but quick attacks by El-Krim forced him to abandon his position at Anwal on July 22, 1921. The Spaniards were hit quickly and were not prepared whatsoever, suffering staggering casualties. Silvestre was killed along with some 10,000 Spaniards and Spain was smashed back to the coast.

Things stayed the same until 1924 when the Spanish government snapped into action. Miguel Primo de Rivera recalled Spanish troops to form a defensive line at Tetuan and came under major scrutiny. Abd El-Krim and his Muslim Berber army took control of the land the Spanish evacuated and established a law code, built roads, and created trade agreements. He turned towards the French colony in Morocco and decided to unite his Republic with the other Berbers. Attacking Fes, the Berbers caused heavy French casualties in a quick ambush. The French made the decision to ally with the Spanish in order to combat the Berber threats to their colonies. Philippe Petain took control of the French in Morocco and in a collaboration with the Spanish, the French marched 20,000 troops to deal with the threat. Spain landed 18,000 soldiers at Alhucemas Bay in September 1925 and the two sides joined to fight the 10,000 Berbers. Abd El-Krim’s guerillas couldn’t withstand such force and began to be pushed back from the coast. The Spanish captured Ajdir on October 2 and dealt a huge blow to the Riffians.

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Spanish Foreign Legionnaires defending Alhucemas

By March the next year, El-Krim had been so badly defeated that he asked for peace talks with the Europeans. The Spanish refused and continued to hammer Berber troops out of their lands. El-Krim was captured by the French in April and he was forced to unconditionally surrender. He and his family were sent to Reunion in exile and Morocco was reclaimed by Spain and France. The Rif War sparked thoughts of independence in the area and would later spring to life after World War Two. This also marked the beginning of the Spanish problems. Soon, the Spanish Civil War would tear the country in two and serve as the training ground for the European nations before World War Two.

Indochine: The Kindling for Vietnam (Part 1)

Ken Burns and and Lynn Novick’s “The Vietnam War” is a new 10 part miniseries on the conflicts between France, the US, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, the Viet Minh, and the Viet Cong over a period of about twenty years. The French presence in their colony of Indochine, or Indochina, was regarded as the instigation for the Vietnam War in which the US was flung into a massive conflict across the Pacific. It is important to understand the background of Vietnam’s relationship with the Western Nations before looking at the US involvement.

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Battle of Kep, 1884

The first Franco-Vietnamese relations were based on Catholicism in the 17th century as missionaries arrived to spread their religion across the world. The French East India Company set up trading posts in 1680 as their presence in the region grew stronger. The French were in India, Siam, and now Vietnam in the 17th century. Things soon turned sour as local Vietnamese people resisted the French missionaries. 200 years later, French ships arrived to rescue some captured missionaries and sunk Vietnamese vessels on their way.

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French Admiral de Genouilly

Napoleon III ordered the end of persecution in Vietnam of French Catholics, and sent Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly and Spanish allies on a Punitive Expedition called the Cochinchina Campaign in 1858. They captured Tourane (Modern-day Da Nang) but were eventually besieged themselves. Franco-Spanish troops in Saigon were also under siege and French troops tied up in Italy and China could not help. Francois Page replaced de Grenouilly s commander of the French forces, and reinforcements arrived in 1860 from China. Tourane was given up in favour of keeping Saigon, so the city was reclaimed by Vietnamese troops. At Ky Hoa, the Vietnamese army of 35,000 were pushed back, allowing French and Spanish troops room in Saigon. The French repeatedly offered peace but each time it was refused. With the fall of Vinh Long, the Vietnamese were in no place to win and peace was organized in June 1862. The Treaty of Saigon gave three provinces to the French and three more were added in 1867.

French expeditions into Tonkin soon exploded as resistance from Vietnamese members of the Chinese Black Flag Army and in 1873, French officer Francis Garnier was killed. The Tonkin Campaign began in 1883 as Henri Riviere brought French troops into Hanoi in an attempt to capture the region. The Black Flag Army were victorious at Paper Bridge, and Riviere was killed. The Tonkin Expeditionary Corps was sent to reinforce the French troops already there and was led by General Alexandre-Eugene Bouet. A victory at Nam Dinh pushed Vietnamese forces to the edge and the French troops had an opportunity to achieve a quick victory. French forces captured the Hue River at the Battle of Thuan An and forced four more provinces to be under French ownership.

At Phu Hoai and Palan, the French were pushed back by the Black Flag Army and the French outpost at Hai Douong fell to Vietnamese troops. The French were in trouble and had wasted their opportunity to end the campaign swiftly. In December, the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps met the Black Flag Army at Son Tay and the battle raged from the 11th until the 17th as the French bombarded their enemies and repeatedly attacked a set of redoubts. After a disastrous counterattack by the Black Flag Army, French Foreign Legionnaires and fusiliers-marins stormed Son Tay and claimed victory for the French.

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The Battle of Bac Ninh

In 1884, Chinese support of the Guangxi Army at Bac Ninh failed as 11,000 French troops crushed them under leadership of Charles-Theodore Millot. The sheer numbers of French troops was the most in the entire Tonkin campaign, managing to field two brigades including artillery. The force was made up of line infantry, Algerian tirailleurs, Foreign Legionnaires, marines, and Turcos. A Chinese ambush at Bac Le in 1884 sparked the Sino-French War over Tonkin. The French navy secured a massive victory at Fuzhou and allowed the French to create a blockade of Chinese ports. The French followed and crushed the Guangxi Army at the Battle of Kep and in retaliation to their high casualties, they massacred droves of Chinese wounded and prisoners to the dismay of the Western Powers. By 1885, the French were on the doorstep of Lang Son which was the main supply line for Chinese troops in Vietnam. After a series of engagements, the French managed to claim victory and the Guangxi were forced to retreat yet again. At Hoa Moc, the French were checked hard suffering some 300 casualties but opened the way to relieving a French outpost nearby. The Guangxi were thrown out of Tonkin the Battle of Dong Dang on Feburary 23rd. The French entered Southern China and were repulsed suffering heavy casualties yet again. The French finally were victorious at the Battle of Phu Lam Tao on March 25th 1885.

French troops during the Sino-French War

The French finally had Tonkin and Annam in June 1885 after years of bloody war. However, the locals still were against the French and constant attacks on supply routes along the Red River angered the French. Though Tonkin was French, it was still very much Vietnamese.

Part Two will discuss Indochina, French influences in the area, and how war broke out yet again in the Indochina War including the legendary of Dien Bien Phu.

Ireland and the Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War lasted from 1936 to 1939, and involved many foreign units fighting for the control Spain and her colonies. The Republicans, supported indirectly by the Soviet Union and Mexico, fought to preserve Republican Spain and contained many Catalans and Basques. The Nationalists, led by Generalissimo Francisco Franco, rebelled against the Second Spanish Republic in order to form a fascist government and was supported predominately by Italy and Germany.

Irish troops had served among the Spanish since the 16th century in the 80 Years’ War. Later, the legendary “Flight of the Wild Geese”, the diaspora of Irish Jacobites to France in 1691, brought more Irishmen to Spain. The “Wild Geese” became a name for all Irish troops serving in foreign forces. The Irish who traveled to Spain formed a few regiments in the Spanish Army: the Hibernian Regiment, the Ulster Regiment, and the Irish Regiment. These were disbanded in 1818 at the request of the British.

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Members of the Irish Brigade

By 1936, some 700 Irish Catholics travelled to Spain in order to help Franco’s forces. Ireland and Spain’s similar Catholic heritage joined the two nations together in an indirect bond, as did the “Wild Geese.” Ireland officially did not help the Nationalists, but Eoin O’Duffy, a former member of Irish Parliament and leader of the Irish National Corporate Party, led Irishmen to Spain in order to stop the rise of Communism. O’Duffy allegedly received some 7,000 applications but was only able to bring a small number with him to Spain. The Irish trained in Caceres and were formed as the 15th Battalion of the Spanish Foreign Legion.

The Nationalist Irish were deployed in the Battle of Jarama in February 1937. They were stationed long with British and Balkan volunteers along the San Martin-Morata Road, and soon defended against Republican troops. Heavy fighting ensued, but their involvement delayed the advance of the rest of Franco’s troops. A counter-attack by Republican troops pushed back the Nationalists and eventually ended the battle.

Generalissimo Franco felt he had no need for more foreign troops, as well as having political pressure against his use of foreigners, so the ‘Irish Brigade’ of the Nationalist Army was not used again, nor were any more volunteers drawn from Ireland.

O’Duffy later returned to Ireland after Franco granted his leave, but he and his troops were not received well. O’Duffy held no political power and would never do so again, and the Irish government began removing files of the ‘Irish Brigade’ in the 1940’s.

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Eoin O’Duffy

As well as fighting for the Nationalists, there were some Irishmen who took up arms for the Spanish Republic. The ‘International Brigades’ that supported the Republic began being formed in 1936, and the Communist Party of Ireland organised a movement in the country.

Frank Ryan, a former member of the Irish Republican Army, traveled to Spain with 80 men in 1936 and his socialist Irishmen became known as the ‘Connolly Column.’ They later gained more support for their cause, and the ‘Connolly Column’ fought at Jarama, Brunete, Belchite, Teruel, Gandesa, and the Ebro.

Ryan was captured during the Battle of the Ebro in 1937, and he was later sentenced to hard labour. He died in 1940. The rest of the Irish returned home in 1938, for political reasons, and they were not given any recognition, similar to O’Duffy’s Irish Brigade.

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Frank Ryan

In the 1930’s, the Spanish Civil War was viewed as a war between the Church and Communism. The Irish loyalty to their Catholic beliefs illustrated the willingness of some 700 to serve on the Nationalist side. The Communist support was much more subdued. The war, realistically, was a war between Franco’s fascism and the preservation of a Spanish Republic.

Much of the Irish press in the 1930’s portrayed Franco’s forces as fighting for Catholicism and that the Republican forces were brutally murdering clergymen. In reality, there were plenty of Catholics on either side of the war. After Franco’s victory, some 6,000 members of the clergy were killed in Spain, causing outrage in the Catholic world.

Francoist Spain was dissolved in 1975 after Franco’s death, forming the modern Kingdom of Spain, and their colonies were later granted independence.