The War of Bavarian Succession

The common theme of “Wars of Succession” in the 18th century affected Spain, Austria, and even Poland. However, the War of Bavarian Succession (1778-79) is widely overlooked by most. It did shape the basis for Napoleonic Central Europe in the upcoming years of turmoil on the Continent.

The Austrians had suffered defeat in their own War of Succession in the 1740s, but Maria Theresa still kept her throne. One of the main parts of Austrian lands they lost was Silesia, a strip of modern-day Poland which belonged to Prussia. When Maria Theresa gave up her title as Holy Roman Empress, the throne passed to her son Joseph II, who wanted to revive Austrian influence in Germany. His reforms of the Austrian military cast a shadow over his reign, as many Austrians were filled with discontent. The situation in the Empire was tense: they wanted to restate their claim as the most important German nation and also reclaim land lost in the Seven Years’ War and War of Austrian Succession.

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Prussian soldiers circa 1778

In December of 1777, the Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian III, died and caused a power vacuum akin to previous problems of succession. Charles Theodore became the new ruler and ceded Bavaria to the Austrians in exchange for the Austrian Netherlands. Joseph II’s pressure on Charles caused the deal to go through, much to Prussia’s disgust. Prussia backed Charles August, Duke of Zweibrucken, and countered the Austrians. When Imperial troops occupied Bavaria, Frederick II declared war. Joseph II led his troops against the Prussians, but no real engagements were fought. Most were simple supply raids through the winter, which led the war to be known as either the “Potato War” or the “Plum Scrum.” Many soldiers on both sides died of starvation in the frigid winters or of diseases which ravaged camps. The Austrians and Prussians lost a combined 39,000 men and 5,000 horses in a war with no major battles.In May of 1779, the aging Maria Theresa intervened, as she was still ‘King’ of Bohemia and Hungary (the throne was legally supposed to be occupied by a man). She organised a separate peace with Frederick, and the war came to a close. Charles Theodore was kept on the throne of Bohemia but Austria would renounce her claims to Bavaria.

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A Brief History of Prussia

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1525- Duchy

1618- Brandenburgers

1701- Kingdom under Frederick I

1713- ‘The Soldier King’

1740- Frederick the Great

1772- Poland partition

1807- Battle of Jena

1815- Blucher in Belgium

1862- Bismark

1866- Battle of Koniggratz

1870- German Empire

1914- WW1

 

 

 

Wargame Figures: Prussian Uhlans of the Franco-Prussian War 1870-71

Uhlans, the lancers of the Prussian Army, were a large portion of the cavalry during the Franco-Prussian War. Each was armed with a long lance and a sword. Many carried pistols as well. The czapka was the most recognizable uniform item of the uhlan, and many lancers of other nations had used the flat-topped helmet for years. Uhlans wore Prussian blue and came from all reaches of the Prussian Empire. Included in the set I have made are the Guard Uhlans. Click here to go to Junior General and view my miniatures.

Prussian Uhlans