The Coronation of Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte, arguably history’s most famed general, is the topic of controversy; movies; and art. The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques Louis David is possibly the most recognizable of paintings about Napoleon. The painting was commissioned in 1804 after Napoleon was crowned as Emperor of France, and was completed two years later. The painting is massive- 20 ft. by 32 ft. It is currently housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris.

Bonaparte holding his wife’s crown

Why was Napoleon even having a coronation? Well, Napoleon wanted to cement his claim to the French Empire. By crowning himself, he felt that he was completely safe from any other dangers from France. The coronation was very peculiar and contradictory. Though Napoleon claimed to be Emperor, he also was acting as a defender of the French Republic. Perhaps the most important event during the coronation came when Pope Pius VII was about to place the crown on Bonaparte’s head. Napoleon took the crown from the Pope’s hands and crowned himself, taking control of the entire situation.

 

Josephine Bonaparte

Jacques Louis David’s painting captures the scene just after, where Napoleon crowns his wife. Bonaparte stands in the centre, holding a crown in his hands. His wife, Josephine kneels before him and looks down toward his feet. Josephine Bonaparte was older than Napoleon and had two children from her late husband. The marriage caused much controversy among Napoleon’s family and the French population. Eventually she was divorced in 1810.

 

 

Napoleon’s brothers

Napoleon’s brothers, Joseph and Jerome, stand at the far left of the painting. Joseph Bonaparte was crowned King of Spain by his brother and was famous for his battles against the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular Wars. Jerome was crowned King of Westphalia. The two brothers were not exiled like Napoleon, and they lived in relative peace until their deaths.

The painting still remains one of the most revered painted by a Frenchman. Though it doesn’t depict a famous battle or engagement, the painting immortalizes one of history’s greatest tacticians and generals.

10 Amazing Facts about the Swiss Army

1. The Swiss were available as mercenaries throughout the middle ages, most notably as expert pikemen.

2. The Swiss Guard serve as the Vatican City’s Army.

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The Swiss Guard

3. Napoleon had four Swiss regiments in his army during the Napoleonic War.

4. The Swiss had a civil war in 1847 called the Sonderbund War. The Sonderbund consisted of Lucerne, Zug, Uri, Fribourg, Valais, and Schwyz.

5. Everybody 19 and above must serve in the modern Swiss army for a few years.

6. The Swiss Army in the First World War only consisted of 100 professional soldiers.

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A Swiss infantryman in the Napoleonic Wars

7. The Swiss accidentally invaded Liechtenstein in 2007, but both sides decided it was completely fine and no fighting broke out.

8. Karl Elsener created the legendary Swiss Army Knife in 1891.

9. The Swiss Air Force is closed on the weekends and at night.

10. William Tell, a Swiss folk hero, has a song written about him in 1501 called the Tellenleid.

Uniforms of the Ages: Zouaves

The uniform of the zouaves was one of the most flamboyant of the mid to late 19th century, and their influences spread through numerous armies in the world. Zouaves originated in the 1830s after the Zwawa tribe of Algeria helped French soldiers capture Algeria in a war against the Ottoman Empire. The zouaves were originally raised as light infantry regiments because of the Algerians ability to fight in skirmishing warfare, tactics that the French Second Empire was unfamiliar with. Zouave units spread to many parts of the world, including the US, the Papal States, Spain, and even Poland.

This zouave is of the 3rd Zouave Regiment of the French Army. Starting from the head, one notices that the soldier wears a fez. The fez is traditional of North African countries, and offers a flair to the soldier. Some wore turbans wrapped around their fez, and fez tassel colours varied from army to army. Zouaves wore a shirt, varying by regiment, and it was covered by a short, open jacket. The pattern on the jacket is called tombeaux. Zouaves wore sashes under their belts in regimental colours. Their large pantaloons, called sarouel, were a trademark of the zouave units. Zouaves also wore gaiters over their shoes, most commonly white or tan.

The French Zouaves had a standard uniform, just like the one pictured. Pantaloons were red, jackets were dark blue with red piping, sashes were light blue, and fezzes had light blue tassels. The distinctions between French units were the bottom of the tombeaux. This Zouave has yellow colouring, indicating his unit is the 3rd Zouaves. The 1st Zouaves had red colouring, and the 2nd was white.
The United States adopted zouaves in 1861 after a tour of French zouaves introduced the idea to the Americans. The tour was mostly in the North, so most zouave units were part of the US Army rather than the Confederate Army. The US Zouaves had a large variation of uniforms in order to differentiate between units. Two of the many US zouave regiments were the 5th New York, known as Duryee’s Zouaves, and the 155th Pennsylvania. Duryee’s Zouaves wore a uniform very close to that of the French. They had a red fez with a yellow tassel, and a dark blue jacket over a dark blue shirt. The tombeaux were red, as was the piping. Their sash was red but was piped in light blue. The pantaloons and gaiters were of the same colour as the French. The 155th PA wore a more Americanized zouave uniform that resembled the uniforms of the French Turcos. They wore a red fez with a dark blue tassel. The jacket and shirt were a lightish gray-blue, and the jacket had yellow tombeaux and piping. The pantaloons were the same colour of the jacket, and the sash was bright red.

The Papal States raised a regiment of zouaves in 1861 in order to combat the Italian Risorgimento movement led by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The regiment was made up of many different nationalities including Italian, French, Dutch, Irish, and Belgian. The Papal Zouaves wore a blue kepi with a red band. Their jacket was blue with red piping, as was their shirt. The red sash was worn above blue pants, and the gaiters were white. The zouaves fought in numerous battles until the end of the Italian Wars of Unification in 1870, and even then, the legend of the Papal Zouaves continued as the French soldiers in the unit fought once more in the Franco-Prussian War as the “Volunteers of the West.”

Poland raised a regiment of zouaves, known as the “Zouaves of Death”, during the January Uprising against Russia in 1863. They were raised by François Rochebrune, a French zouave officer who had served in Crimea. The “Zouaves of Death” wore a red fez, a black jacket without tombeaux, and a trademark shirt with a large white emblazoned cross. Their pants were black as were their boots, which were knee-length. This regiment was butchered in the uprising, but Rochebrune survived. He received a “Legion of Honour” for his bravery.

Zouaves were renowned for their bravery and skill in battle, but they are more known for their outlandish uniforms. Their North African style of dress was good for hot weather, as it was designed for fighting in Algeria, and it is evident why other nations raised units.