Historical Field Trip: The Veneto

Italy’s history dates back to the times of the Etruscans and Romans, and one of the nation’s most memorable cities is Venice. The winding canals, seafood, and magnificent churches make it a massive tourist destination. While Venice and the surrounding region, the Veneto, are big tourist stops, many breeze over their complex history and the few interesting landmarks and monuments off the beaten path.

Venice:

Venice was a very complicated republic in its early history. Run by the doge, Venice controlled lands from Italy to Croatia and even parts of Greece. Both Byzantine and Classical influences spread throughout the city for its many magnificent buildings.

1. Doge’s Palace

The Doge, or Duke, of Venice controlled the Republic. You can tour the apartments of the Doge and also look at the judiciary chambers of the republic. The prison is connected to the palace as is the armoury, which contains many weapons from the 14th century as well as some artifacts from the Battle of Lepanto.

2. Revolution

Venice’s uprising took place in European rebellion’s favourite year- 1848. A monument to the battles remains in the backstreets of Venice in the San Marco area at Corte Tagliapietra. The monument is to the “heroic resistance” of Austrian rule at the time and a plaque has been put up next to a statue of the Venetian Lion. The plaque is lined with Austrian cannonballs fired at the Venetians. Daniele Manin led a revolt in order to create a new Venetian Republic, but it ended in disaster for the Italians

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Austrian cannonballs used in the 1848 uprising
The Venetian Lion atop the monument

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northern Veneto:

The Northern Veneto was the sight of many battles of the First World War between Italy and Austria-Hungary. Though many overlook the Italian Front, it is one of the most intriguing topics of the war.

3. Travel to the town of Asiago in the Italian mountains to see the Asiago War Memorial. The Italian Front cost both nations massive casualties, and some 50,000 remains are housed in the memorial. The arched monument is quite large and opened in the 1930s. Also in Asiago is a selection of trenches preserved on Monte Zebio. The trenches are both Austrian and Italian, and are exceptionally well preserved.

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Trenches on Monte Zebio

4. The Strada delle 52 Gallerie is a section of 52 roads through the Italian Alps which were built by the Italian army during WWI. These allowed the transfer of supplies, food, troops, and munitions to the front with less danger of enemy rifle fire or artillery. There are some scenic hikes and you can drive through some of the tunnels.

Verona:

Remembered primarily as the city of Romeo and Juliet, Verona is one of the more interesting cities of Italy that doesn’t get much attention. While they don’t have many historical sights, apart from sights of the Shakespeare play, there are still a few interesting spots.

5. On Via dietro Anfiteatro, a plaque sits on the wall of some Italian soldiers. These are members of the Pasubio Division, one of the Italian army units stationed in Verona. They fought in Africa, Russia, Yugoslavia, and in Italy from their years of service from 1866 to 1943.

Pasubio Division

6. The equestrian statue of King Vittorio Emmanuele II sits by the Roman amphitheater in Verona. The unifying king of Italy, Emmanuele is immortalized in Italian history and his image appears all over the country.

 

 

 

Uniforms of the Ages: Zouaves

The uniform of the zouaves was one of the most flamboyant of the mid to late 19th century, and their influences spread through numerous armies in the world. Zouaves originated in the 1830s after the Zwawa tribe of Algeria helped French soldiers capture Algeria in a war against the Ottoman Empire. The zouaves were originally raised as light infantry regiments because of the Algerians ability to fight in skirmishing warfare, tactics that the French Second Empire was unfamiliar with. Zouave units spread to many parts of the world, including the US, the Papal States, Spain, and even Poland.

This zouave is of the 3rd Zouave Regiment of the French Army. Starting from the head, one notices that the soldier wears a fez. The fez is traditional of North African countries, and offers a flair to the soldier. Some wore turbans wrapped around their fez, and fez tassel colours varied from army to army. Zouaves wore a shirt, varying by regiment, and it was covered by a short, open jacket. The pattern on the jacket is called tombeaux. Zouaves wore sashes under their belts in regimental colours. Their large pantaloons, called sarouel, were a trademark of the zouave units. Zouaves also wore gaiters over their shoes, most commonly white or tan.

The French Zouaves had a standard uniform, just like the one pictured. Pantaloons were red, jackets were dark blue with red piping, sashes were light blue, and fezzes had light blue tassels. The distinctions between French units were the bottom of the tombeaux. This Zouave has yellow colouring, indicating his unit is the 3rd Zouaves. The 1st Zouaves had red colouring, and the 2nd was white.
The United States adopted zouaves in 1861 after a tour of French zouaves introduced the idea to the Americans. The tour was mostly in the North, so most zouave units were part of the US Army rather than the Confederate Army. The US Zouaves had a large variation of uniforms in order to differentiate between units. Two of the many US zouave regiments were the 5th New York, known as Duryee’s Zouaves, and the 155th Pennsylvania. Duryee’s Zouaves wore a uniform very close to that of the French. They had a red fez with a yellow tassel, and a dark blue jacket over a dark blue shirt. The tombeaux were red, as was the piping. Their sash was red but was piped in light blue. The pantaloons and gaiters were of the same colour as the French. The 155th PA wore a more Americanized zouave uniform that resembled the uniforms of the French Turcos. They wore a red fez with a dark blue tassel. The jacket and shirt were a lightish gray-blue, and the jacket had yellow tombeaux and piping. The pantaloons were the same colour of the jacket, and the sash was bright red.

The Papal States raised a regiment of zouaves in 1861 in order to combat the Italian Risorgimento movement led by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The regiment was made up of many different nationalities including Italian, French, Dutch, Irish, and Belgian. The Papal Zouaves wore a blue kepi with a red band. Their jacket was blue with red piping, as was their shirt. The red sash was worn above blue pants, and the gaiters were white. The zouaves fought in numerous battles until the end of the Italian Wars of Unification in 1870, and even then, the legend of the Papal Zouaves continued as the French soldiers in the unit fought once more in the Franco-Prussian War as the “Volunteers of the West.”

Poland raised a regiment of zouaves, known as the “Zouaves of Death”, during the January Uprising against Russia in 1863. They were raised by François Rochebrune, a French zouave officer who had served in Crimea. The “Zouaves of Death” wore a red fez, a black jacket without tombeaux, and a trademark shirt with a large white emblazoned cross. Their pants were black as were their boots, which were knee-length. This regiment was butchered in the uprising, but Rochebrune survived. He received a “Legion of Honour” for his bravery.

Zouaves were renowned for their bravery and skill in battle, but they are more known for their outlandish uniforms. Their North African style of dress was good for hot weather, as it was designed for fighting in Algeria, and it is evident why other nations raised units.

 

The Very Brief History of Italy

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509 BCE- Roman Republic

27 BCE- Empire

476- Fall of Rome

756- Papal States

1176- Normans

1348- Black Death

14th Century- Renaissance begins

1494- Italian Wars

1559- Habsburgs

1796- Napoleon

1815- Risorgimento

1848- Garibaldi

1859- Battle of Solferino

1870- Italy

1915- First World War

1922- Mussolini

1943- No fascism

1992- Tangentopoli

2006- World Cup Winners