Italy’s history dates back to the times of the Etruscans and Romans, and one of the nation’s most memorable cities is Venice. The winding canals, seafood, and magnificent churches make it a massive tourist destination. While Venice and the surrounding region, the Veneto, are big tourist stops, many breeze over their complex history and the few interesting landmarks and monuments off the beaten path.
Venice was a very complicated republic in its early history. Run by the doge, Venice controlled lands from Italy to Croatia and even parts of Greece. Both Byzantine and Classical influences spread throughout the city for its many magnificent buildings.
1. Doge’s Palace
The Doge, or Duke, of Venice controlled the Republic. You can tour the apartments of the Doge and also look at the judiciary chambers of the republic. The prison is connected to the palace as is the armoury, which contains many weapons from the 14th century as well as some artifacts from the Battle of Lepanto.
Venice’s uprising took place in European rebellion’s favourite year- 1848. A monument to the battles remains in the backstreets of Venice in the San Marco area at Corte Tagliapietra. The monument is to the “heroic resistance” of Austrian rule at the time and a plaque has been put up next to a statue of the Venetian Lion. The plaque is lined with Austrian cannonballs fired at the Venetians. Daniele Manin led a revolt in order to create a new Venetian Republic, but it ended in disaster for the Italians
The Northern Veneto was the sight of many battles of the First World War between Italy and Austria-Hungary. Though many overlook the Italian Front, it is one of the most intriguing topics of the war.
3. Travel to the town of Asiago in the Italian mountains to see the Asiago War Memorial. The Italian Front cost both nations massive casualties, and some 50,000 remains are housed in the memorial. The arched monument is quite large and opened in the 1930s. Also in Asiago is a selection of trenches preserved on Monte Zebio. The trenches are both Austrian and Italian, and are exceptionally well preserved.
4. The Strada delle 52 Gallerie is a section of 52 roads through the Italian Alps which were built by the Italian army during WWI. These allowed the transfer of supplies, food, troops, and munitions to the front with less danger of enemy rifle fire or artillery. There are some scenic hikes and you can drive through some of the tunnels.
Remembered primarily as the city of Romeo and Juliet, Verona is one of the more interesting cities of Italy that doesn’t get much attention. While they don’t have many historical sights, apart from sights of the Shakespeare play, there are still a few interesting spots.
5. On Via dietro Anfiteatro, a plaque sits on the wall of some Italian soldiers. These are members of the Pasubio Division, one of the Italian army units stationed in Verona. They fought in Africa, Russia, Yugoslavia, and in Italy from their years of service from 1866 to 1943.
6. The equestrian statue of King Vittorio Emmanuele II sits by the Roman amphitheater in Verona. The unifying king of Italy, Emmanuele is immortalized in Italian history and his image appears all over the country.
African Kaiser by Robert Gaudi focuses on the little-known theatre of the First World War- East Africa. A semi-biography of General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck and semi-recollection of the East African campaigns, this book gives a lot of information in all 422 of it pages. The book contains maps of Africa circa 1914 and some photos related to von Lettow and the German Schutztruppe. The book covers a lengthy period of German colonialism in Africa, mentioning their backgrounds and the initial unwillingness to participate in imperialism. Von Lettow, “the Lion of Africa”, is one of the Great War’s most fascinating generals, and Gaudi makes sure that his readers are fully aware.
Praise: This book provides a large amount of information that I did not know, and was certainly interested in. Gaudi uses a very smooth writing style which is interesting to read and presents facts in a good way. The book discusses Germany’s background of colonization and Otto von Bismarck’s reluctance to do so. There is information on the Herero Rebellion in German Southwest Africa, the Meji-Meji Rebellion, the Schutztruppe, the diseases troops faced while on campaign in Africa, and much more. Gaudi also uses many Swahili words throughout the book to convey the language of the askari. The extensive bibliography indicates a good use of primary sources as well. African Kaiser is full of adventure into the heart of East Africa, portrayals of vicious bush fighting, and, of course, Oberleutnant Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. Interestingly, Gaudi provides a perspective in which one finds it hard to take sides. Neither side is portrayed in such a way that is superior in morals to the other, and that is uncommon in history books. There is almost a familiar connection with British officer Richard Meinertzhagen, as his diaries are used to give a British perspective. The South African units led by Jan Smuts are also covered well.
African Kaiser begins in an extremely strange way, set of the Estonian coast. A large portion of this book seemed to be aimless and unrelated really to the main point of the book. It was only till pg.110 that one sees the first glimpses of German East Africa. There seems to be a lot of talking about pointless things such as the Boxer Rebellion or how certain worms and ailments affect the human body. While I can understand Gaudi for putting these in the book, I am not sure such a large amount of time needed to be spent on it. Yes, von Lettow served in China, and yes the strange beginning ties in with the rest of the book once you read the full chapter (at a stretch), but it felt sometimes as though there was a large amount of “time wasting” and delaying the point that this is a biography of von Lettow and East Africa.
I certainly enjoyed reading African Kaiser, but there were flaws that made it stray from the point. A large focus of this book was the slow process of German colonization, and tying it with von Lettow at any opportune moment. I was skeptical of the book, but when Gaudi began talking about the First World War, the book redeemed most of my doubts. The book is well written and draws readers in, and it is an interesting topic to write about.
On May 5th, 1864, the Army of the Potomac crossed Germanna Ford near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Union General Gouverneur K. Warren’s V Corps crossed into the woodland known as the Wilderness early in the morning, unaware of an immediate Confederate threat. Ulysses S. Grant thought the Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee were 7 miles away, but in reality they were marching down the Orange Turnpike about to stumble upon Grant’s lead elements.Warren’s force collided with Gen. Richard Ewell’s Corps, igniting the Battle of the Wilderness. The VI Corps under Gen. John Sedgwick marched to aid Warren, but ferocious fighting in Saunders Field halted both corps. Ewell’s troops held a line of fortifications and waited for any more attacks by either Federal corps. That night, Gen John Gordon assaulted the Union left and forced a withdrawal while Union infantry rushed to hold the crossroads of the Orange Plank Road and the Orange Turnpike
The next day, Sedgwick’s corps struck Ewell’s lines north of the Orange Turnpike. While the fighting raged on, Hancock’s II Corps and Burnside’s IX Corps attacked two Confederate corps to the south at the Chewning and Tapp Farms. These fields were a break in the dense forest fighting for the troops, and attempted control of these areas was crucial to the battle. General Lee rode out in front of Gregg’s Texas Brigade and called them to action. Lee, under fire, inspired the troops to hold until Longstreet could send reinforcements to AP Hill. Longstreet arrived, slamming into Hancock’s flank, but the dense wood and fires caused confusion. Longstreet was wounded in the neck by his own troops in the confusion, and the battle began to wind down. A final attempted assault by confederate troops proved indecisive, and the Battle of the Wilderness drew to a close.
The Orange Turnpike
The Orange Turnpike, modern day Constitution Highway, was the initial route for Union troops marching towards the Confederate troops. Notice the woodland to either side and how troops would have felt marching through the trees. Warren’s V Corps led the Union advance along this road on May 5.
The battle began in Saunders Field, one of the major clearings of the battle. Get out of your car and explore the site, walking from the woods on your right across the open ground. This route shows the march of the Union forces under Charles Griffin as they met Gen. Edward Johnson’s Division. There is a trail that leads into the woods which is a good walk to experience in order to see how disorganized you can become while marching through thickets and woodlands. You may notice a monument as you walk across the field. This commemorates the 140th NY as they, along with many other Union troops, furiously assaulted the Confederate lines.
While you continue along the road, get out to investigate the Confederate entrenchments constructed by Ewell’s corps. The line at the top of Saunders Field is well preserved and shows the extensive fortifications that the Confederates used throughout the Overland Campaign.
Further along the line of fortifications you will come to the very top of Saunders field. The view in front of you is that of the attack Gen. John Gordon launched in the late afternoon to smash the V Corps back. Gordon swept through the field and pushed back the Union troops. The cannon in Saunders Field is a monument for the position of the 1st NY Artillery whose guns were captured in Gordon’s attack.
The Higgerson Farm
One of the main clearings of the battle, The Higgerson Farm was controlled by Confederate troops for the majority of the battle and they stopped attacks from Burnside’s IX Corps.
On May 6th, a furious engagement raged on in the Tapp field between AP Hill’s corps and the II Corps. Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, rode out in front of his soldiers and urged them on. This act inspired a Confederate counterattack- one that gave Longstreet time to bring up reinforcements. Walk across the field to see artillery trenches, the Tapp farm, and a monument to the Texas Brigade.
Longstreet’s Corps arrived to support AP Hill just in time, smashing the Union left flank back along the Brock Road. Longstreet suffered a wound in the confusion of battle, keeping him out of battle for 6 months. There is a small trail leading to monuments and markers.
Hancock’s II corps entrenched along the intersection of the Orange Plank Road and the Brock Road on the night of May 5, encountering fierce combat. The trenches are still along the road, but are very hard to get a picture of, due to their proximity to the roads. An attack on this position after Longstreet’s arrival on May 6 was held and concluded the battle