Here are the French troops I made for the Crimean War. The third major contingent in the war, French troops fought alongside the British for one of the first instances in their history. They hadn’t fought on the same side since the War of the Quadruple Alliance.
France’s Ancien Regime (France with kings) lasted for thousands of years, but when most people talk about it, they refer to the 18th century. Since flags were such an important part of the 18th century battlefield, I will be exploring the French infantry flags of this period.
The majority of infantry during the 17th century was line infantry. These regiments had the most men and were recruited from all over France. The French had two flags for their regiments: the colonel’s colour and the regimental colour. The colonel’s flag was all white, with a cross in the middle of it. White was the main colour of the Bourbon dynasty of France, so their flags reflected this. The regimental flag was the same except each canton on the side was colored in different shades. Normandy’s regiment had yellow on all four. Auvergne had black and purple cantons; black was in the top left and bottom right.
Some regiments had more complex designs on their flags with zigzagged lines, fleurs-de-lys, or other markings. Nice’s regiment had waved blue lines on a red background, symbolizing its proximity with the sea. Many regiments that were named after the Bourbons or kings had fleurs-de-lys on their cross. The Du Roi Infantrie had 48 gold fleurs on their flag as well as “Per Dercori Virtus” written on it. The Soissonais had yellow diagonal lines in each of its blue cantons, while the Ile-de-France regiment had black triangles facing outward on a light brown background.
The French Irish Brigade had their own characteristic flags with the traditional French style. The main flag had two red cantons running top right to bottom left. Each canton had a large gold crown and a harp in the join of the cross. The flags said “Hoc in Signo Vinces” (With this sign, we conquer) in gold lettering on the red cross. The other cantons would be regimental. The Rooth Regiment was simply a cross of St. George with a golden lion and crown in the centre. The Duke of Berwicks’ had no crowns, but 4 green cantons with red diagonal lines. The colonel’s flag was the same as the other flags except in white.
The Flag of the Bulkeley Regiment
The Gardes Françaises were the ultimate regiment of French guards, founded in the mid 16th century. Their dark blue coats had red facings and were commanded by a French Lt.-General. The colonel colour was the simple, white French pattern but on each branch of the cross, there was a golden crown. Their regular colour was blue with a white cross akin to the colonel’s one, except there were 180 small fleurs-de-lys.
The Swiss Guards followed the Franco-Swiss format of flags. The colonel’s colour was all white, as per usual, except in the regimental one, there was a collection of rays on each canton. They were orange, purple-blue, black, and red. These bright flags were used by all other Swiss units, but their regimental colours were different colours.
The 10 Swiss regiments all used the same design as the Swiss Guards, but some were more complex. The Diesbach regiment had “Fidelite et Honeur” on their black, yellow, and red flags. Their colonel’s colour had many small fleurs de lys on it. Others had slogans or crowns on their colonel’s colours.
The French had many other foreign regiments with interesting colours. The Royal Bavarian Regiment’s regimental flag had a white and red border with a smaller cross in white on a light blue field. Inside the cross were fleurs-de-lys. The colonel’s colour had the Virgin Mary in the centre. The La Marck Regiment had wite and red checkers surrounding a blue square with three fleurs, a crown, and golden laurels.
There are so many other French flags, but of course, I cannot describe them all. I encourage you to look up more of these flags, because they are so interesting!
The turn of the 18th century brought an end to the era of matchlock muskets and the flintlock arrived to reign for over 100 years. Most historians accept the fact that the flintlock was a vastly superior weapon, but how much of an edge did the musket really have?
First let’s look at the basic concept of the matchlock musket. Matchlocks evolved throughout multiple wars, but the first of them were operated by a lever. The lever would trigger the pin with attached match cord to move down and light the powder in the pan. Later, matchlocks developed to have a trigger. The muskets were usually at the shoulder of the musketeer, measuring 140 cm (4’5). To load a matchlock, you would pour some powder in the pan, close the pan and blow off the loose powder, pour powder and ball down the barrel, ram the charge, light the match, and fire. The process would usually take a minute for inexperienced musketeers, but many could fire twice per minute.
Now let’s look at the flintlock. The flintlock operated with a simple system with a hammer, frizzen, and pan. The musket was similar in length and weight to a matchlock and were used in the latter 17th century and continued to be used throughout the 18th century and even through the Napoleonic Wars, ending in 1815. Loading a flintlock was easy to learn for common infantrymen. The soldier would pour some powder into the pan and close the frizzen over it. Then, he would charge the musket by pouring the ball and powder into the barrel from a cartridge. The bullet would be rammed and then he would pull back the hammer. The flint would strike the pan and spark the powder, firing the musket.
Many would label the flintlock as the superior weapon immediately since it clearly arrived on the battlefield after the development of matchlock muskets. However, the flintlock did not have much of an edge at all. Loading times were staggeringly similar. Trained musketeers in the 1680s and 90s fired flintlocks in 30 seconds, just two seconds less than the average time to fire a matchlock (according to John Tincey in Osprey MAA 267). The weight and lengths of these muskets were comparably the same, too. Both weapons would frequently misfire due to problems with their pans and damp powder would not fire from either musket. Many musketeers continued to use the matchlock into the very early 18th century. So why was it replaced?
Matchlock musketeers carried their powder in wooden cartridges slung around their shoulders, nicknamed ‘apostles.’ Musketballs were carried in a pouch, and powder for their pans was in a horn. Including this, the musketeer had wadding in a separate pouch. These were very fiddly to operate, and would waste time. In the heat of battle, a musketeer may forget which ‘apostle’ he used and may forget wadding, causing a muzzle flash but no shot. Musketeers in the flintlock-era solved this problem by using paper cartridges, which were quicker to load and more effective. Flintlock muskets also had the ability to attach bayonets to them. The plug bayonet could be used by matchlocks, but this prevented firing, and many matchlock musketeers relied on swords or their regiment’s pikemen to defend them. Socket and plug bayonets were more common for the flintlock, and when Louis XIV first introduced the socket bayonet, it was exclusive to flintlock muskets. Flintlocks also removed the problems with matchcords, which would fizzle out on many occasions and cause uncoordinated firing from companies. Flintlocks were perfect for volleys and therefore suited the evolving style of European armies.
The advantage is taken by the flintlock thanks to technological advances away from the musket itself. When presented head-to-head, these muskets were not much different from one another. Mass production in the Industrial Revolution played a large role in the flintlock overtaking the matchlock as the primary weapon on the battlefield, as well as the disappearance of pikes and the evolution of the Marlburian-Era tactics.
One of the four allied countries to send troops to fight the Russians, the Ottoman Empire sent a large army to Crimea. Their westernized uniforms with fezzes were a common sight on the battlefields, as over 140,000 Ottoman soldiers fought in the war. 45,000 of these soldiers would lose their lives, more than even the British forces in the war. To use my Ottoman troops in your Crimean War wargames, click here.
Uhlans, the lancers of the Prussian Army, were a large portion of the cavalry during the Franco-Prussian War. Each was armed with a long lance and a sword. Many carried pistols as well. The czapka was the most recognizable uniform item of the uhlan, and many lancers of other nations had used the flat-topped helmet for years. Uhlans wore Prussian blue and came from all reaches of the Prussian Empire. Included in the set I have made are the Guard Uhlans. Click here to go to Junior General and view my miniatures.
Switzerland has always been a nation synonymous with neutrality, but they almost found themselves at war in 1914 with Germany and France at their borders. The Swiss were worried the French would try to use Switzerland as a shortcut to Germany, but the Germans attacked Belgium and France before any skirmishes erupted. These figures are great for doing any early war “what if?” scenarios.
Morocco’s horrible political dealings had ended poorly and European nations prayed on the weakened country. In 1912, Spain and France agreed on the creation of a Spanish colony in northern Morocco along the Rif Valley on the Mediterranean. With Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War, they were eager to create a new colony. The Rif was occupied by a large, fiercely independent Berber population.
Spanish troops attempted to pacify the Berbers, but Abd El-Krim, a member of the Beni Urriaguel, decided to unite the Berbers against the Spanish. Establishing the Rif Republic in 1920, El-Krim banded together guerillas to resist the Spanish troops in the area. The Berber tribesmen were not numerous at all, but were great at skirmishing against their enemies. They had traditionally repelled Arab invasions of their home in the Rif Mountains. The Spanish would be one of their toughest challenges yet. General Manuel Fernandez Silvestre commanded the Spanish troops at the front, but quick attacks by El-Krim forced him to abandon his position at Anwal on July 22, 1921. The Spaniards were hit quickly and were not prepared whatsoever, suffering staggering casualties. Silvestre was killed along with some 10,000 Spaniards and Spain was smashed back to the coast.
Things stayed the same until 1924 when the Spanish government snapped into action. Miguel Primo de Rivera recalled Spanish troops to form a defensive line at Tetuan and came under major scrutiny. Abd El-Krim and his Muslim Berber army took control of the land the Spanish evacuated and established a law code, built roads, and created trade agreements. He turned towards the French colony in Morocco and decided to unite his Republic with the other Berbers. Attacking Fes, the Berbers caused heavy French casualties in a quick ambush. The French made the decision to ally with the Spanish in order to combat the Berber threats to their colonies. Philippe Petain took control of the French in Morocco and in a collaboration with the Spanish, the French marched 20,000 troops to deal with the threat. Spain landed 18,000 soldiers at Alhucemas Bay in September 1925 and the two sides joined to fight the 10,000 Berbers. Abd El-Krim’s guerillas couldn’t withstand such force and began to be pushed back from the coast. The Spanish captured Ajdir on October 2 and dealt a huge blow to the Riffians.
By March the next year, El-Krim had been so badly defeated that he asked for peace talks with the Europeans. The Spanish refused and continued to hammer Berber troops out of their lands. El-Krim was captured by the French in April and he was forced to unconditionally surrender. He and his family were sent to Reunion in exile and Morocco was reclaimed by Spain and France. The Rif War sparked thoughts of independence in the area and would later spring to life after World War Two. This also marked the beginning of the Spanish problems. Soon, the Spanish Civil War would tear the country in two and serve as the training ground for the European nations before World War Two.