10 Facts about the Meiji Restoration

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1. The emperor Meiji abolished the feudal system of Japan in 1871

2. Meiji wrote some 100,000 poems during his life

3. The Meiji period lasted only 44 years

4. Tokyo was made the capital of Japan under Meiji. Prior to his rule, it was Kyoto

5. The Imperial Japanese Army was founded in 1871 and was directly controlled by the emperor as stated in the Meiji Constitution

6. Saigo Takamori led the Satsuma Rebellion in the 1870s against the Meiji Emperor, but he had once held command in the Imperial Guard

7. The Japanese railway system was 18 miles in 1872 and was 7,100 miles by 1914

8. The restoration influenced kokutai, a sense of nationalism and unity in Japan

9. Samurai still were second overall in social hierarchy, though most people believe they entirely disappeared. Their influence in government suffered before the class itself

10. The Japanese merchant fleet in 1904 was over 4 times larger than it was 10 years prior

The Coronation of Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte, arguably history’s most famed general, is the topic of controversy; movies; and art. The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques Louis David is possibly the most recognizable of paintings about Napoleon. The painting was commissioned in 1804 after Napoleon was crowned as Emperor of France, and was completed two years later. The painting is massive- 20 ft. by 32 ft. It is currently housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris.

Bonaparte holding his wife’s crown

Why was Napoleon even having a coronation? Well, Napoleon wanted to cement his claim to the French Empire. By crowning himself, he felt that he was completely safe from any other dangers from France. The coronation was very peculiar and contradictory. Though Napoleon claimed to be Emperor, he also was acting as a defender of the French Republic. Perhaps the most important event during the coronation came when Pope Pius VII was about to place the crown on Bonaparte’s head. Napoleon took the crown from the Pope’s hands and crowned himself, taking control of the entire situation.

 

Josephine Bonaparte

Jacques Louis David’s painting captures the scene just after, where Napoleon crowns his wife. Bonaparte stands in the centre, holding a crown in his hands. His wife, Josephine kneels before him and looks down toward his feet. Josephine Bonaparte was older than Napoleon and had two children from her late husband. The marriage caused much controversy among Napoleon’s family and the French population. Eventually she was divorced in 1810.

 

 

Napoleon’s brothers

Napoleon’s brothers, Joseph and Jerome, stand at the far left of the painting. Joseph Bonaparte was crowned King of Spain by his brother and was famous for his battles against the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular Wars. Jerome was crowned King of Westphalia. The two brothers were not exiled like Napoleon, and they lived in relative peace until their deaths.

The painting still remains one of the most revered painted by a Frenchman. Though it doesn’t depict a famous battle or engagement, the painting immortalizes one of history’s greatest tacticians and generals.