Arguably the most important battle in the War of Austrian Succession, Fontenoy pitted French troops against an Anglo-Hanoverian and Dutch force in the fields of Belgium. I made wargame minatures in 15mm scale to replicate each regiment that was present at the battle so you can reenact sections of this engagement. Including generals, infantry, artillery, and cavalry, the set I created is as accurate a representation to the flags and uniforms as possible.
Here are all of the links to print off your figures:
Emigre units made up a sizable portion of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars. Emigres were foreign troops in British service who chose to form regiments of a similar group.
One of the most notable units of emigres was the Kin’s German Legion, or the KGL. Made up of predominately Hanoverians, the KGL was created in 1803 from the remnants of the French controlled areas in Germany. The House of Hanover, who were in control of the British crown, helped to influence many Germans to choose the path of Britain rather than fighting for their new French leaders. The KGL consisted of 8 battalions of line infantry, 5 regiments of cavalry, and 6 batteries of artillery. There were about 14,000 troops in the KGL- the most of any emigre unit by far. They served throughout many campaigns of the Napoleonic Wars, notably in the Peninsula and in the Hundred Days. They fought at Bussaco, Salamanca, Vittoria, and Waterloo. They were most notably involved in the fighting at La Haye Sainte, described in The Longest Afternoon.
The Royal Corsican Rangers, a unit of riflemen formed on the island of Corsica, began in 1794 with the aid of Corsican revolutionary Pasquale Paoli. By 1798, British General Ralph Abercromby made them an independent unit as they began to fight in Italy against Napoleon’s forces. Most notably, the Corsicans clashed with French troops at Maida in Sicily. The unit was stationed in Corfu later on until they were disbanded in 1817. Another of the Emigres was the Royal Sicilian Regiment founded in 1806 with 1,300 troops. Maj.-Gen. John Stuart created the unit who served on Malta and on their home island of Sicily.
One of the more famous and peculiar units was the Chasseurs Britanniques, made up of deserters from France. Many of them were people who were targeted in the revolution or people who were not allowed back in France. Over 1,700 troops fought in the Chasseurs Britanniques and they served widely around the world. They fought in the Egypt Campaign, in the Peninsula, and in the War of 1812 in the United States. The unit was disbanded in 1814 after Napoleon’s first exile.
The King’s Dutch Legion (KDL) was formed in 1799 after King William V left Holland after the French invaded and created the puppet state of the Batavian Republic. William V’s legion consisted of 5000 infantrymen and artillery and the unit served in the 1798 Irish Rebellion before they were disbanded in 1802. Another Dutch-inspired unit was the Regiment de Meuron because they were in Dutch East India Company (VOC) service. The Swiss mercenaries numbered about 900 and were transferred to the British after the formation of the Batavian Republic. They fought both in the Peninsula and in the United States.
Osprey Publishing’s recent release, Fontenoy 1745, retells the story of the War of Austrian Succession’s most famous battle. An Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian force commanded by the Duke of Cumberland came face to face with Marechal de Saxe’s French forces in the small Belgian town of Fontenoy, just outside Tournai. Written by Michael McNally and illustrated by Sean O’Brogain, this book opens up a near-forgotten war in Europe’s history.
Praise: Cumberland’s tactical errors are pointed out bluntly, and rightfully so. The book makes its statements of how the Anglo-Dutch forces were uninformed and very strong-willed to their plans. Saxe’s flexibility and use of multiple columns is depicted in a few maps and really shows what a complex network the French general made. There are also reconstructed uniforms in the book of many units of interest such as the Mousquetaires du Roi of the French army. On-site photographs are always great, but McNally manages to capture the correct weather too. His misty pictures clearly show how hard it was for the early-morning attacks troops made. Osprey Publishing always do a good introduction to a topic, and the War of Austrian Succession is covered briefly and provides a solution to any confusion one may have about what the British or the French fighting in Belgium has to do with the Austrian throne.
Criticism: The two battle maps in the book felt boxy too me. While 18th century warfare was very rigid in its structure, the maps feel odd and seem to exaggerate the number of troops on the field with huge blocks of infantry. The illustrations could also have been placed better in the book, as you find a picture of the French Irish Brigade about 10 pages after you hear about their attack.
The War of Austrian Succession is mostly overlooked, but it still remains a very important war. Maria Theresa kept her claims to the throne, and it eventually led to the Seven Years’ War. Saxe’s strategies influenced Napoleon Bonaparte later in the early 19th century. Seeing the British defeat as an opportunity, the Jacobite Rebellion sprang up in Scotland. While the Battle of Fontenoy was 3 years before the end of the war, it remains a turning point, and a remarkable French victory over the British, Hanoverians, and Dutch.
Since 1845, the British had been fighting the Maori in New Zealand in an effort to crush any resistance of British control in the colony. The Maori, who lived on the North Island of New Zealand, did not want any British rule over their land, and they fought wars over the rights to sell and have jurisdiction over land. By 1863, the wars had involved a greater and greater number of British troops in order to suppress the Maori King Movement, which called for the formation of a unified Maori nation under one king
The British governor of New Zealand, George Grey, decided to crush the Maori King Movement, which was centered in the Waikato Region. The British forces, under the command of Lieutenant-General Duncan Cameron, numbered around 15,000, which was a massive number compared to that of the Maori. Cameron’s force of colonials crossed the Waikato River on July 12, 1863, and the Maori met the British troops in various engagements.
Wiremu Tamihana, the leader of the Maori force, clashed with British troops at the Battle of Meremere on October 12, and the British attacks were not decisive enough to Crush the Maori. Tamihana lead his troops from the pa, a defensive settlement, and slipped away in the night.
One month later, Cameron’s forces met the Maori at Rangiriri, a well-structured but incomplete pa. The British assault was turned by the defenders of the main redoubt, but the sheer numbers of British troops eventually stormed the pa. The British artillery proved to be strangely ineffective against Maori fortifications throughout the New Zealand Wars, and Rangiriri was no exception. The Maori troops once again escaped in the night from British forces, yet Lt.-Gen. Cameron claimed victory.
The Maori still held the Paterangi Line, an extensive line of fortifications that they retreated back to after the Battle of Rangiriri. A large mobilization of Maori, some 2,000 strong, occupied the Paterangi Line, and prepared to meet the British in early 1864. Gustavus von Tempsky, a Prussian officer of the Forest Rangers, led his troops in an attack on the Maori at Rangiaowhia. Von Tempsky was killed in the engagement after being shot through the head, and the Paterangi Line remained in Maori control.
Rewi Maniapoto, the leader of the King Movement, gathered his forces at Orakau in March, and the British forces arrived to put an end to Maori resistance. The defenders of the pa were offered a chance to surrender but replied “Friend, we will fight forever, forever, and forever.” The British assaulted the pa relentlessly and eventually defeated Maniapoto on April 2 after a combined British force of 1400 crushed the defenders. The Battle of Orakau is known as “Rewi’s Last Stand.” However, the Maori yet again slipped away into the night and managed to keep the embers of the King Movement alive, and the New Zealand Wars continued into the 1870’s.