Greek Propaganda of WW1

The World Wars were full of colorful propaganda posters urging people to buy bonds or enlist to serve their respective nations. Minor nations continued to galvanize their populations for war, so this is an exploration of Greece’s propaganda. Greece, originally split by a pro-Germany monarch and a pro-Entente parliament, hosted the Salonika front and fought in her fair share of battles after joining in 1917. Their famous evzones and crack mountain troops proved capable in the First World War thanks to the Balkan Wars of 1912-13.

  1. Greeks! Enlist!
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“Greeks! Enlist! The barbarians slaughter our brothers, our villages, old men and women? What are you waiting for? To arms!”

This poster shows a Greek soldier in a drab coat holding his hand out to the countryside where we see a group of dead citizens, one of which is a baby. The trees are cut down and the village is blazing in the background while thick black smoke curls around the soldier. He shouts, raising his Greek Mauser to the sky, and beckons the reader to enlist and prevent the “barbarous” Turks and Austrians from destroying their home. If you pay close attention, you can see the Orthodox Church on fire in the town. This man is an evzone, an elite Greek infantryman perfect for fighting in the rocky hills. The classic tasseled fez is a giveaway, as are the pants. Evzones and other Greeks usually did not wear puttees- preferring long socks or stockings over the leg wraps.

2. Balkan Wars

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“5 October, 1912. The Balkans against tyranny!”

Yes, this is not technically a First World War poster, but I find it’s meaning fits comfortably for that. This depicts the situation in the Balkans in October 1912, just two years before Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination. Two days later than the date (Oct. 5) on the poster, the nations above declared war on the “sick man of Europe”- the Ottoman Empire. The Turks are shown as a hideous dragon-like creature surrounded by bones. The nations (from left to right) of Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, and Russia are all slicing the monster in quarters. Behind them is an angel wielding a cross. This poster shows the extreme anti-Turkish sentiment of Greeks at this time. The Greek soldier wears much more traditional dress, showing us the pre-war styles of these four nations. Again, note the stockings and fez. Of course, the Turks are not monsters as this pictures- this is simply outdated wartime propaganda.

 

3. The White Tower

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“White Tower of Thessaloniki…but what hard stone!”

Salonika is the northern region of Greece over which all of the Central Powers and the majority of Entente members clashed with one another. The city of Thessaloniki sits in this region, and standing proud is the White Tower. In this poster, a German officer charges headfirst into the tower, cracking his head repeatedly while a Greek peers over the edge. Greek, British, Russian, French, Serbian, and Romanian forces held Salonika for the duration of the campaign in bitter sieges, but the Germans and Bulgarians were unable to defeat them. This is a perfect symbol! An image of Thessaloniki stopping the invaders.

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The White Tower

 

Though Greece played a minor role in the Great War, she still produced a collection of colorful propaganda posters.

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HMS Macedonian vs USS United States

Painters have a fascination with the ocean. Monet’s “La Terasse de St.-Adresse”, Gericault’s “Raft of the Medusa”, and Turner’s “The Fighting Temerarie” all illustrate the sea’s crashing waves, ships tossing about, and the serenity of the water. Some paintings are of war, and the combination of these two themes create masterpieces. This painting, by Thomas Chambers, is “Capture of H.B.M Frigate Macedonian by U.S. Firgate United States, October 25, 1812.” It is time to explore both the art and the history behind Chambers’ piece.

Capture of H.B.M. Frigate Macedonian by U.S. Frigate United States, October 25, 1812

The painting is in the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington D.C. on a wall in the second floor corridor. Painted in 1852, the image shows a duel between HMS Macedonian and the USS United States, early in the War of 1812. First we must understand the background to the piece. The War of 1812 began on the seas as the US and Britain became involved in a series of disputes over impressment. The United States’ claims to parts of Canada and the Franco-American sympathies helped turn the tide and war was declared in 1812. The USS United States was the first American frigate ever built, ordered in March of 1794. The ship’s captain, Stephen Decatur, allegedly made a bet with the commander of the Macedonian, John Carden, in Norfolk, Virginia. If the two were to meet in battle, Carden owed Decatur his beaver-felt hat. The United States was sent to patrol North Africa where it came into contact with the Macedonian off the Azores.

USS United States had a strong advantage over HMSMacedonian in its firepower. Most of the United States’ guns were 24-pounders, while HMS Macedonian was equipped with primarily 18-pounders. The United States also had six more guns and was a larger, more-powerful ship. The United States‘ broadsides riddled the British frigate at a long range and demasted the ship. Carden surrendered his ship after suffering some 100 casualties. The Macedonian was the first British ship to be bested by an American ship and the first to be returned to an American port (Newport, Rhode Island). HMS Macedonian was recommissioned as USS Macedonian and served until 1824.

Carden and the Macedonian

The close-up above shows Capt. John Carden of HMS Macedonian announcing his surrender to the United States with a loudhailer as the American ship fires a broadside into the Macedonian‘s hull. The sails next to him are covered in holes from the shot. It is important to note the damages around the ship as the USS United States fired about seventy broadsides. Chambers’ painting shows the ship in a much better state than it would have been. Many of the crew on both side are on deck, but on the United States, they would have been below decks firing the broadside illustrated.

USS United States

The whisps of smoke are my favourite part of this painting. Think how difficult it is to paint smoke and even show the wooden hull behind it. The American crew cheers from the deck and further to the right stands Decatur, responding to Carden over the roar of the cannon. Notice how the American ship is in the light of victory. Chambers was born in England, but moved to the United States where he would paint this in 1852. It is interesting to see where his loyalties lie.

While this painting is not as famous as “The Coronation of Napoleon” which I previously reviewed , it is still a very intriguing painting as it shows the different aspects of naval combat and the differences between each nation’s ships in one of the first naval engagements of the War of 1812.

The Coronation of Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte, arguably history’s most famed general, is the topic of controversy; movies; and art. The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques Louis David is possibly the most recognizable of paintings about Napoleon. The painting was commissioned in 1804 after Napoleon was crowned as Emperor of France, and was completed two years later. The painting is massive- 20 ft. by 32 ft. It is currently housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris.

Bonaparte holding his wife’s crown

Why was Napoleon even having a coronation? Well, Napoleon wanted to cement his claim to the French Empire. By crowning himself, he felt that he was completely safe from any other dangers from France. The coronation was very peculiar and contradictory. Though Napoleon claimed to be Emperor, he also was acting as a defender of the French Republic. Perhaps the most important event during the coronation came when Pope Pius VII was about to place the crown on Bonaparte’s head. Napoleon took the crown from the Pope’s hands and crowned himself, taking control of the entire situation.

 

Josephine Bonaparte

Jacques Louis David’s painting captures the scene just after, where Napoleon crowns his wife. Bonaparte stands in the centre, holding a crown in his hands. His wife, Josephine kneels before him and looks down toward his feet. Josephine Bonaparte was older than Napoleon and had two children from her late husband. The marriage caused much controversy among Napoleon’s family and the French population. Eventually she was divorced in 1810.

 

 

Napoleon’s brothers

Napoleon’s brothers, Joseph and Jerome, stand at the far left of the painting. Joseph Bonaparte was crowned King of Spain by his brother and was famous for his battles against the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular Wars. Jerome was crowned King of Westphalia. The two brothers were not exiled like Napoleon, and they lived in relative peace until their deaths.

The painting still remains one of the most revered painted by a Frenchman. Though it doesn’t depict a famous battle or engagement, the painting immortalizes one of history’s greatest tacticians and generals.