Wargame Figures: The Mexican Adventure 1861-67

The Mexican Adventure was the Franco-Hapsburg invasion of Mexico from 1861 to 1867. With a complex tangle of Imperial Mexico and a Mexican Republican Army led by Benito Juarez, the Mexican Adventure was full of some amazing characters and battles. This collection of wargame miniatures covers most of the units in the war, including the Belgian and Austrian volunteers as well as a wide variety of French soldiers.

The Mexican Adventure

If you would like to use my figures for a wargame, feel free to click the link here.

Be sure to look at the rest of the figures I have created ranging from the Franco-Prussian War, the Second Schleswig War, and the Crimean War.

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10 Amazing Facts about the Swiss Army

1. The Swiss were available as mercenaries throughout the middle ages, most notably as expert pikemen.

2. The Swiss Guard serve as the Vatican City’s Army.

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The Swiss Guard

3. Napoleon had four Swiss regiments in his army during the Napoleonic War.

4. The Swiss had a civil war in 1847 called the Sonderbund War. The Sonderbund consisted of Lucerne, Zug, Uri, Fribourg, Valais, and Schwyz.

5. Everybody 19 and above must serve in the modern Swiss army for a few years.

6. The Swiss Army in the First World War only consisted of 100 professional soldiers.

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A Swiss infantryman in the Napoleonic Wars

7. The Swiss accidentally invaded Liechtenstein in 2007, but both sides decided it was completely fine and no fighting broke out.

8. Karl Elsener created the legendary Swiss Army Knife in 1891.

9. The Swiss Air Force is closed on the weekends and at night.

10. William Tell, a Swiss folk hero, has a song written about him in 1501 called the Tellenleid.

Uniforms of the Ages: Zouaves

The uniform of the zouaves was one of the most flamboyant of the mid to late 19th century, and their influences spread through numerous armies in the world. Zouaves originated in the 1830s after the Zwawa tribe of Algeria helped French soldiers capture Algeria in a war against the Ottoman Empire. The zouaves were originally raised as light infantry regiments because of the Algerians ability to fight in skirmishing warfare, tactics that the French Second Empire was unfamiliar with. Zouave units spread to many parts of the world, including the US, the Papal States, Spain, and even Poland.

This zouave is of the 3rd Zouave Regiment of the French Army. Starting from the head, one notices that the soldier wears a fez. The fez is traditional of North African countries, and offers a flair to the soldier. Some wore turbans wrapped around their fez, and fez tassel colours varied from army to army. Zouaves wore a shirt, varying by regiment, and it was covered by a short, open jacket. The pattern on the jacket is called tombeaux. Zouaves wore sashes under their belts in regimental colours. Their large pantaloons, called sarouel, were a trademark of the zouave units. Zouaves also wore gaiters over their shoes, most commonly white or tan.

The French Zouaves had a standard uniform, just like the one pictured. Pantaloons were red, jackets were dark blue with red piping, sashes were light blue, and fezzes had light blue tassels. The distinctions between French units were the bottom of the tombeaux. This Zouave has yellow colouring, indicating his unit is the 3rd Zouaves. The 1st Zouaves had red colouring, and the 2nd was white.
The United States adopted zouaves in 1861 after a tour of French zouaves introduced the idea to the Americans. The tour was mostly in the North, so most zouave units were part of the US Army rather than the Confederate Army. The US Zouaves had a large variation of uniforms in order to differentiate between units. Two of the many US zouave regiments were the 5th New York, known as Duryee’s Zouaves, and the 155th Pennsylvania. Duryee’s Zouaves wore a uniform very close to that of the French. They had a red fez with a yellow tassel, and a dark blue jacket over a dark blue shirt. The tombeaux were red, as was the piping. Their sash was red but was piped in light blue. The pantaloons and gaiters were of the same colour as the French. The 155th PA wore a more Americanized zouave uniform that resembled the uniforms of the French Turcos. They wore a red fez with a dark blue tassel. The jacket and shirt were a lightish gray-blue, and the jacket had yellow tombeaux and piping. The pantaloons were the same colour of the jacket, and the sash was bright red.

The Papal States raised a regiment of zouaves in 1861 in order to combat the Italian Risorgimento movement led by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The regiment was made up of many different nationalities including Italian, French, Dutch, Irish, and Belgian. The Papal Zouaves wore a blue kepi with a red band. Their jacket was blue with red piping, as was their shirt. The red sash was worn above blue pants, and the gaiters were white. The zouaves fought in numerous battles until the end of the Italian Wars of Unification in 1870, and even then, the legend of the Papal Zouaves continued as the French soldiers in the unit fought once more in the Franco-Prussian War as the “Volunteers of the West.”

Poland raised a regiment of zouaves, known as the “Zouaves of Death”, during the January Uprising against Russia in 1863. They were raised by François Rochebrune, a French zouave officer who had served in Crimea. The “Zouaves of Death” wore a red fez, a black jacket without tombeaux, and a trademark shirt with a large white emblazoned cross. Their pants were black as were their boots, which were knee-length. This regiment was butchered in the uprising, but Rochebrune survived. He received a “Legion of Honour” for his bravery.

Zouaves were renowned for their bravery and skill in battle, but they are more known for their outlandish uniforms. Their North African style of dress was good for hot weather, as it was designed for fighting in Algeria, and it is evident why other nations raised units.

 

Book Review: African Kaiser

African Kaiser by Robert Gaudi focuses on the little-known theatre of the First World War- East Africa. A semi-biography of General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck and semi-recollection of the East African campaigns, this book gives a lot of information in all 422 of it pages. The book contains maps of Africa circa 1914 and some photos related to von Lettow and the German Schutztruppe. The book covers a lengthy period of German colonialism in Africa, mentioning their backgrounds and the initial unwillingness to participate in imperialism. Von Lettow, “the Lion of Africa”, is one of the Great War’s most fascinating generals, and Gaudi makes sure that his readers are fully aware.

Praise: This book provides a large amount of information that I did not know, and was certainly interested in. Gaudi uses a very smooth writing style which is interesting to read and presents facts in a good way. The book discusses Germany’s background of colonization and Otto von Bismarck’s reluctance to do so. There is information on the Herero Rebellion in German Southwest Africa, the Meji-Meji Rebellion, the Schutztruppe, the diseases troops faced while on campaign in Africa, and much more. Gaudi also uses many Swahili words throughout the book to convey the language of the askari. The extensive bibliography indicates a good use of primary sources as well. African Kaiser is full of adventure into the heart of East Africa, portrayals of vicious bush fighting, and, of course, Oberleutnant Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. Interestingly, Gaudi provides a perspective in which one finds it hard to take sides. Neither side is portrayed in such a way that is superior in morals to the other, and that is uncommon in history books. There is almost a familiar connection with British officer Richard Meinertzhagen, as his diaries are used to give a British perspective. The South African units led by Jan Smuts are also covered well.

Criticism:

African Kaiser begins in an extremely strange way, set of the Estonian coast. A large portion of this book seemed to be aimless and unrelated really to the main point of the book. It was only till pg.110 that one sees the first glimpses of German East Africa. There seems to be a lot of talking about pointless things such as the Boxer Rebellion or how certain worms and ailments affect the human body. While I can understand Gaudi for putting these in the book, I am not sure such a large amount of time needed to be spent on it. Yes, von Lettow served in China, and yes the strange beginning ties in with the rest of the book once you read the full chapter (at a stretch), but it felt sometimes as though there was a large amount of “time wasting” and delaying the point that this is a biography of von Lettow and East Africa.

I certainly enjoyed reading African Kaiser, but there were flaws that made it stray from the point. A large focus of this book was the slow process of German colonization, and tying it with von Lettow at any opportune moment. I was skeptical of the book, but when Gaudi began talking about the First World War, the book redeemed most of my doubts. The book is well written and draws readers in, and it is an interesting topic to write about.

Rating: 4/5

Historical Field Trip: The Wilderness

Battle Summary:

On May 5th, 1864, the Army of the Potomac crossed Germanna Ford near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Union General Gouverneur K. Warren’s V Corps crossed into the woodland known as the Wilderness early in the morning, unaware of an immediate Confederate threat. Ulysses S. Grant thought the Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee were 7 miles away, but in reality they were marching down the Orange Turnpike about to stumble upon Grant’s lead elements.Warren’s force collided with Gen. Richard Ewell’s Corps, igniting the Battle of the Wilderness. The VI Corps under Gen. John Sedgwick marched to aid Warren, but ferocious fighting in Saunders Field halted both corps. Ewell’s troops held a line of fortifications and waited for any more attacks by either Federal corps. That night, Gen John Gordon assaulted the Union left and forced a withdrawal while Union infantry rushed to hold the crossroads of the Orange Plank Road and the Orange Turnpike

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The dense forest in the Wilderness frequently caught fire in the battle, burning the wounded to death.

The next day, Sedgwick’s corps struck Ewell’s lines north of the Orange Turnpike. While the fighting raged on, Hancock’s II Corps and Burnside’s IX Corps attacked two Confederate corps to the south at the Chewning and Tapp Farms. These fields were a break in the dense forest fighting for the troops, and attempted control of these areas was crucial to the battle. General Lee rode out in front of Gregg’s Texas Brigade and called them to action. Lee, under fire, inspired the troops to hold until Longstreet could send reinforcements to AP Hill. Longstreet arrived, slamming into Hancock’s flank, but the dense wood and fires caused confusion. Longstreet was wounded in the neck by his own troops in the confusion, and the battle began to wind down. A final attempted assault by confederate troops proved indecisive, and the Battle of the Wilderness drew to a close.

  1. The Orange Turnpike

The Orange Turnpike, modern day Constitution Highway, was the initial route for Union troops marching towards the Confederate troops. Notice the woodland to either side and how troops would have felt marching through the trees. Warren’s V Corps led the Union advance along this road on May 5.

  1. Saunders Field

The battle began in Saunders Field, one of the major clearings of the battle. Get out of your car and explore the site, walking from the woods on your right across the open ground. This route shows the march of the Union forces under Charles Griffin as they met Gen. Edward Johnson’s Division. There is a trail that leads into the woods which is a good walk to experience in order to see how disorganized you can become while marching through thickets and woodlands. You may notice a monument as you walk across the field. This commemorates the 140th NY as they, along with many other Union troops, furiously assaulted the Confederate lines.

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Saunders Field

 

  1. Earthworks

While you continue along the road, get out to investigate the Confederate entrenchments constructed by Ewell’s corps. The line at the top of Saunders Field is well preserved and shows the extensive fortifications that the Confederates used throughout the Overland Campaign.

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Ewell’s entrenchments
  1. Gordon

Further along the line of fortifications you will come to the very top of Saunders field. The view in front of you is that of the attack Gen. John Gordon launched in the late afternoon to smash the V Corps back. Gordon swept through the field and pushed back the Union troops. The cannon in Saunders Field is a monument for the position of the 1st NY Artillery whose guns were captured in Gordon’s attack.

  1. The Higgerson Farm

One of the main clearings of the battle, The Higgerson Farm was controlled by Confederate troops for the majority of the battle and they stopped attacks from Burnside’s IX Corps.

  1. Tapp Field

On May 6th, a furious engagement raged on in the Tapp field between AP Hill’s corps and the II Corps. Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, rode out in front of his soldiers and urged them on. This act inspired a Confederate counterattack- one that gave Longstreet time to bring up reinforcements. Walk across the field to see artillery trenches, the Tapp farm, and a monument to the Texas Brigade.

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Artillery positions in the Tapp Field
  1. Longstreet Arrives

Longstreet’s Corps arrived to support AP Hill just in time, smashing the Union left flank back along the Brock Road. Longstreet suffered a wound in the confusion of battle, keeping him out of battle for 6 months. There is a small trail leading to monuments and markers.

  1. Union Trenches

Hancock’s II corps entrenched along the intersection of the Orange Plank Road and the Brock Road on the night of May 5, encountering fierce combat. The trenches are still along the road, but are very hard to get a picture of, due to their proximity to the roads. An attack on this position after Longstreet’s arrival on May 6 was held and concluded the battle