Since 1845, the British had been fighting the Maori in New Zealand in an effort to crush any resistance of British control in the colony. The Maori, who lived on the North Island of New Zealand, did not want any British rule over their land, and they fought wars over the rights to sell and have jurisdiction over land. By 1863, the wars had involved a greater and greater number of British troops in order to suppress the Maori King Movement, which called for the formation of a unified Maori nation under one king
The British governor of New Zealand, George Grey, decided to crush the Maori King Movement, which was centered in the Waikato Region. The British forces, under the command of Lieutenant-General Duncan Cameron, numbered around 15,000, which was a massive number compared to that of the Maori. Cameron’s force of colonials crossed the Waikato River on July 12, 1863, and the Maori met the British troops in various engagements.
Wiremu Tamihana, the leader of the Maori force, clashed with British troops at the Battle of Meremere on October 12, and the British attacks were not decisive enough to Crush the Maori. Tamihana lead his troops from the pa, a defensive settlement, and slipped away in the night.
One month later, Cameron’s forces met the Maori at Rangiriri, a well-structured but incomplete pa. The British assault was turned by the defenders of the main redoubt, but the sheer numbers of British troops eventually stormed the pa. The British artillery proved to be strangely ineffective against Maori fortifications throughout the New Zealand Wars, and Rangiriri was no exception. The Maori troops once again escaped in the night from British forces, yet Lt.-Gen. Cameron claimed victory.
The Maori still held the Paterangi Line, an extensive line of fortifications that they retreated back to after the Battle of Rangiriri. A large mobilization of Maori, some 2,000 strong, occupied the Paterangi Line, and prepared to meet the British in early 1864. Gustavus von Tempsky, a Prussian officer of the Forest Rangers, led his troops in an attack on the Maori at Rangiaowhia. Von Tempsky was killed in the engagement after being shot through the head, and the Paterangi Line remained in Maori control.
Rewi Maniapoto, the leader of the King Movement, gathered his forces at Orakau in March, and the British forces arrived to put an end to Maori resistance. The defenders of the pa were offered a chance to surrender but replied “Friend, we will fight forever, forever, and forever.” The British assaulted the pa relentlessly and eventually defeated Maniapoto on April 2 after a combined British force of 1400 crushed the defenders. The Battle of Orakau is known as “Rewi’s Last Stand.” However, the Maori yet again slipped away into the night and managed to keep the embers of the King Movement alive, and the New Zealand Wars continued into the 1870’s.
This book, published by Osprey Publishing, discusses the Dutch Infantry in the wars against the Spanish from 1568-1648. The author, Bouko de Groot, is a graduate of Leiden University and served in the Royal Netherlands Army. He outlines the drastic changes that Maurice of Nassau brought to the Dutch military, and later, to the world of pike and shot.
Maurice’s revolutionary tactics are explained well and presented in diagrams drawn by the author. The 80 Years’ War is divided among three separate wars: the Civil War, the War for Independence, and the Coalition War. There is a map of all the locations of battles presented in the book, and de Groot relates tactics and soldiers with examples of certain battles during the wars. The uniforms are covered well, and the author will be releasing a second book about the Dutch cavalry, engineers, and artillery later on.
Praise: I was very pleased with this book, as it uses prints from the era to show some intriguing elements of the Dutch forces. One interesting part of this book is de Groot’s “Regimental Genealogy” which tells you what regiments (Dutch and foreign) served in the Dutch forces at the time. The illustrated plates of the soldiers and their descriptions were very well done by Gerry and Sam Embleton, and it conveys the wide array of weaponry and uniforms that were used in the 80 Years War. There is also an interesting set of illustrations of flags throughout the war. I appreciated the descriptions of the changes in Dutch tactics, and how they affected those of the Germans, English, and Swedes in the 30 Years War, English Civil War, and other battles of the time.
Criticism: Most of my criticism for this book is purely based on my lack of knowledge of the pike and shot era of warfare. De Groot does not explain to you what a “caliver” is, so I looked it up myself, and discovered it was an early musket that had a standardized bore so it was easier to load. These soon were replaced with the matchlock. I felt as if the uniforms could have been described in more detail, perhaps by giving examples of some period dress the units would have worn.
Overall, this book was a great introduction to the 80 Years War, and the development of warfare during the 16th and 17th centuries. I was very pleased, and would definitely say it is worth purchasing if you are interested in that time period, or would like to learn more about tactics of that period as well as the uniforms of Dutch infantry themselves.
Rating: 4.5 / 5
If you would like to read de Groot’s interview with Osprey Publishing, you can find it here
If you would like to purchase “Dutch Armies of the 80 Years’ War”, click here