The Very Brief History of Italy

Image result for roman mosaicImage result for garibaldiImage result for italy in world war 1 posters

509 BCE- Roman Republic

27 BCE- Empire

476- Fall of Rome

756- Papal States

1176- Normans

1348- Black Death

14th Century- Renaissance begins

1494- Italian Wars

1559- Habsburgs

1796- Napoleon

1815- Risorgimento

1848- Garibaldi

1859- Battle of Solferino

1870- Italy

1915- First World War

1922- Mussolini

1943- No fascism

1992- Tangentopoli

2006- World Cup Winners

Book Review: African Kaiser

African Kaiser by Robert Gaudi focuses on the little-known theatre of the First World War- East Africa. A semi-biography of General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck and semi-recollection of the East African campaigns, this book gives a lot of information in all 422 of it pages. The book contains maps of Africa circa 1914 and some photos related to von Lettow and the German Schutztruppe. The book covers a lengthy period of German colonialism in Africa, mentioning their backgrounds and the initial unwillingness to participate in imperialism. Von Lettow, “the Lion of Africa”, is one of the Great War’s most fascinating generals, and Gaudi makes sure that his readers are fully aware.

Praise: This book provides a large amount of information that I did not know, and was certainly interested in. Gaudi uses a very smooth writing style which is interesting to read and presents facts in a good way. The book discusses Germany’s background of colonization and Otto von Bismarck’s reluctance to do so. There is information on the Herero Rebellion in German Southwest Africa, the Meji-Meji Rebellion, the Schutztruppe, the diseases troops faced while on campaign in Africa, and much more. Gaudi also uses many Swahili words throughout the book to convey the language of the askari. The extensive bibliography indicates a good use of primary sources as well. African Kaiser is full of adventure into the heart of East Africa, portrayals of vicious bush fighting, and, of course, Oberleutnant Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. Interestingly, Gaudi provides a perspective in which one finds it hard to take sides. Neither side is portrayed in such a way that is superior in morals to the other, and that is uncommon in history books. There is almost a familiar connection with British officer Richard Meinertzhagen, as his diaries are used to give a British perspective. The South African units led by Jan Smuts are also covered well.

Criticism:

African Kaiser begins in an extremely strange way, set of the Estonian coast. A large portion of this book seemed to be aimless and unrelated really to the main point of the book. It was only till pg.110 that one sees the first glimpses of German East Africa. There seems to be a lot of talking about pointless things such as the Boxer Rebellion or how certain worms and ailments affect the human body. While I can understand Gaudi for putting these in the book, I am not sure such a large amount of time needed to be spent on it. Yes, von Lettow served in China, and yes the strange beginning ties in with the rest of the book once you read the full chapter (at a stretch), but it felt sometimes as though there was a large amount of “time wasting” and delaying the point that this is a biography of von Lettow and East Africa.

I certainly enjoyed reading African Kaiser, but there were flaws that made it stray from the point. A large focus of this book was the slow process of German colonization, and tying it with von Lettow at any opportune moment. I was skeptical of the book, but when Gaudi began talking about the First World War, the book redeemed most of my doubts. The book is well written and draws readers in, and it is an interesting topic to write about.

Rating: 4/5

Historical Field Trip: The Wilderness

Battle Summary:

On May 5th, 1864, the Army of the Potomac crossed Germanna Ford near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Union General Gouverneur K. Warren’s V Corps crossed into the woodland known as the Wilderness early in the morning, unaware of an immediate Confederate threat. Ulysses S. Grant thought the Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee were 7 miles away, but in reality they were marching down the Orange Turnpike about to stumble upon Grant’s lead elements.Warren’s force collided with Gen. Richard Ewell’s Corps, igniting the Battle of the Wilderness. The VI Corps under Gen. John Sedgwick marched to aid Warren, but ferocious fighting in Saunders Field halted both corps. Ewell’s troops held a line of fortifications and waited for any more attacks by either Federal corps. That night, Gen John Gordon assaulted the Union left and forced a withdrawal while Union infantry rushed to hold the crossroads of the Orange Plank Road and the Orange Turnpike

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The dense forest in the Wilderness frequently caught fire in the battle, burning the wounded to death.

The next day, Sedgwick’s corps struck Ewell’s lines north of the Orange Turnpike. While the fighting raged on, Hancock’s II Corps and Burnside’s IX Corps attacked two Confederate corps to the south at the Chewning and Tapp Farms. These fields were a break in the dense forest fighting for the troops, and attempted control of these areas was crucial to the battle. General Lee rode out in front of Gregg’s Texas Brigade and called them to action. Lee, under fire, inspired the troops to hold until Longstreet could send reinforcements to AP Hill. Longstreet arrived, slamming into Hancock’s flank, but the dense wood and fires caused confusion. Longstreet was wounded in the neck by his own troops in the confusion, and the battle began to wind down. A final attempted assault by confederate troops proved indecisive, and the Battle of the Wilderness drew to a close.

  1. The Orange Turnpike

The Orange Turnpike, modern day Constitution Highway, was the initial route for Union troops marching towards the Confederate troops. Notice the woodland to either side and how troops would have felt marching through the trees. Warren’s V Corps led the Union advance along this road on May 5.

  1. Saunders Field

The battle began in Saunders Field, one of the major clearings of the battle. Get out of your car and explore the site, walking from the woods on your right across the open ground. This route shows the march of the Union forces under Charles Griffin as they met Gen. Edward Johnson’s Division. There is a trail that leads into the woods which is a good walk to experience in order to see how disorganized you can become while marching through thickets and woodlands. You may notice a monument as you walk across the field. This commemorates the 140th NY as they, along with many other Union troops, furiously assaulted the Confederate lines.

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Saunders Field

 

  1. Earthworks

While you continue along the road, get out to investigate the Confederate entrenchments constructed by Ewell’s corps. The line at the top of Saunders Field is well preserved and shows the extensive fortifications that the Confederates used throughout the Overland Campaign.

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Ewell’s entrenchments
  1. Gordon

Further along the line of fortifications you will come to the very top of Saunders field. The view in front of you is that of the attack Gen. John Gordon launched in the late afternoon to smash the V Corps back. Gordon swept through the field and pushed back the Union troops. The cannon in Saunders Field is a monument for the position of the 1st NY Artillery whose guns were captured in Gordon’s attack.

  1. The Higgerson Farm

One of the main clearings of the battle, The Higgerson Farm was controlled by Confederate troops for the majority of the battle and they stopped attacks from Burnside’s IX Corps.

  1. Tapp Field

On May 6th, a furious engagement raged on in the Tapp field between AP Hill’s corps and the II Corps. Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, rode out in front of his soldiers and urged them on. This act inspired a Confederate counterattack- one that gave Longstreet time to bring up reinforcements. Walk across the field to see artillery trenches, the Tapp farm, and a monument to the Texas Brigade.

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Artillery positions in the Tapp Field
  1. Longstreet Arrives

Longstreet’s Corps arrived to support AP Hill just in time, smashing the Union left flank back along the Brock Road. Longstreet suffered a wound in the confusion of battle, keeping him out of battle for 6 months. There is a small trail leading to monuments and markers.

  1. Union Trenches

Hancock’s II corps entrenched along the intersection of the Orange Plank Road and the Brock Road on the night of May 5, encountering fierce combat. The trenches are still along the road, but are very hard to get a picture of, due to their proximity to the roads. An attack on this position after Longstreet’s arrival on May 6 was held and concluded the battle

The Mamluk Sultanate: The Islamic Medieval Superpower

The Mamluks were at the height of Islamic civilization during the Middle Ages, but one may not think so because of their origins. Mamluks, meaning “property”, were originally enslaved soldiers of the various Islamic Empires. The Mamluk Sultanate sprung out of the ashes of the Fatimid Caliphate, who controlled Egypt and Syria, around 1250. Al-Salih Ayyub’s Mamluk armies came to power after his death in 1249, and overthrew his empire a year later.

The Mamluks instilled a caliphate in Cairo and began expanding their lands into modern-day Syria, Saudi Arabia, and later Cyprus. Most notably, the Mamluks ruled over the Islamic Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina. One of the keys to Mamluk success was their exceptional cavalry. Mamluks wore a much lighter armour than Europeans, and were much more flexible in combat. The Mamluks wore the traditional Islamic turban helmet, chain mail, or in some cases, lamellar armour. They relied heavily on curved swords, spears, lances, and small shields. However, the number of professional Mamluk soldiers were limited, and the majority of their forces were volunteers. These soldiers wore simple robes and turbans, which were a much cheaper form of uniforms. Some Mamluk horses received armour of their own, predominately made of laminated cloth and leather.

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Mamluk Warriors

 

Mamluk forces were commanded by amirs, or officers, who commanded a group of men. Most amirs commanded an army of around 300 to 800 soldiers. Amirs were paid well, and many could afford elaborately decorated homes. Many Mamluk amirs were trained well in military schools, and many were punished as part of a strict disciplinary regime.

The Mamluks were split between two dynasties: the Bahri (1250-1382) and the Burji (1382-1517). Bahri Mamluks invaded Nubia from Egypt in 1265 and showed their fine warriorship in battle. The Mamluks fought numerous engagements against the Crusaders and Knights Hospitaller, most notably in the 1291 Siege of Acre. The Bahri, who were predominantly of Turkish origin, were overthrown by the Burji in 1382. The Burji were mostly Circassians from the Northern Caucasus. The first Burji sultan, Sayf ad-Din Barquq, came to power and not only faced wars from the Bahri, but the Mongols as well. The unstable Bahri were destroyed, but the Mongols still threatened the borders of the Mamluk Sultanate.

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The 1291 Siege of Acre

Tamerlane, leader of the Mongols; raided Persia, the Caucasus, and Anatolia. Tamerlane’s “Golden Horde” slaughtered the occupants of Damascus and Aleppo in Mamluk territory, and war broke out between the two powers, but the worries of the ongoing Crusades pressured both. The Mongol invasions greatly degraded the quality of the Mamluk Sultanate, even with the capture of Cyprus in 1426. The Mamluks were not a naval power at all, and later failed to retain Cyprus after the fall of Egypt and Syria.

The fledgeling Ottoman Empire, led by Sultan Selim the Grim, butchered the Mamluks in Syria and later Egypt, and by 1517, the Mamluk Sultanate came to an end. Ottoman technological superiority with artillery and firearms proved too much for the Mamluk cavalry and foot soldiers, and the Mamluk Sultanate came to a close.The Ottoman Empire would dominate the area into the Early 20th Century.

The Very Brief History of the Falklands War

1982

25 March- Argentine Marines land in South Georgia
2 April- Argentines land in the Falklands
26 April- British regain South Georgia
28 April- Total Exclusion Zone
30 April- British task force arrives
2 May- General Belgrano sinks
4 May- HMS Sheffield sinks
14 May- Pebble Island
21 May- HMS Ardent sinks
28 May- Battle of Goose Green
30 May- Moore arrives
31 May- Top Malo House
11 June- Mt. Longdon
13 June- Tumbledown
14 June- Argentines surrender

Wargame Figures: Prussian Cuirassiers in the Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71

These are Prussian Cuirassiers for the Franco-Prussian War including the correct facings and saddle pads for the cavalry. The Prussians had eight regiments of heavy cavalry as well as two regiments of guards.

Prussian Cuirassiers

Wargame Figures: Prussian Infantry in the Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71

These are Prussian soldiers I made for wargaming the Franco-Prussian War. These soldiers include the correct corps shoulder straps for each of the Prussian corps. I am currently working on a larger project illustrating the German units of the Franco-Prussian War.

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