Grenada- a small island nation near Venezuela which only gained her independence in 1974. In the early 1980s, the tiny country was the subject of immense controversy after a US-led invasion and disposal of the new Cuban-supported government. Grenada was headed by Prime Minister Maurice Bishop ever since he led a revolution to establish a People’s Government. Bishop was assassinated in a military coup a week before the invasion, and the nation was thrown into disarray. The US invaded to fulfill the Truman Doctrine and prevent the USSR from building airstrips on the island, but the invasion itself gained global attention since Grenada was a former British colony.
President Ronald Reagan ordered a force of 2,000 troops to invade the island on October 26th in what is called Operation ‘Urgent Fury’. The USSR immediately jumped in on the situation, saying the US attack was a breach of international law and an act of terrorism. Grenada’s army was small and armed with little anti-air weaponry. They had a few BTR-60 APCs but no tanks. The 82nd Airborne landed and captured a large portion of their objectives, while the 75th Rangers captured and secured a LZ. The 8th Marines Regiment attacked and captured another airport and helped the US forces claim victory on the first day of the invasion. 2 Americans were killed and another 23 were wounded.
US troops had little intelligence and had to improvise constantly in order to secure positions against the Grenadan and Cuban forces. US Navy SEALS failed to take their objectives, attacking wrong buildings and becoming mixed up due to a lack of maps. The advancing American troops had no idea of the number of forces they were facing, and assumed they were heavily outnumbered by Cuban troops.
On the 27th, the US 2/325th attacked Cuban positions at Calliste, where they managed to capture a large number of weapons. This ended the Cuban forces’ ability to counter the American invaders since a large portion of their equipment was lost. Meanwhile, US Rangers safely transported over 200 American students offshore in fear of the citizens getting killed in the fighting. Marines continued to push inland the next morning and pushed Grenadan troops back while bombing runs from planes of the USS Independence strafed the enemy positions. Missiles from the USS Clifton Sprague and support from the destroyers USS Caron, Koontz, and Moosbrugger ended the resistance from Grenadan forces. 19 Americans were killed.
The United Kingdon, headed by Margaret Thatcher, was furious that Reagan had attacked a member of the Commonwealth without consent. Democrat members of the US Congress disagreed with Reagan. Sen. Lawton Chiles asked if the US was “looking for a war to win?” While Democrats primarily disagreed with the invasion, Republicans supported it. Senator John Tower said “the island is strategically located and a Marxist presence there is not in our national interest.” Conflict in Congress and pressure from the UK for an explanation prompted Reagan to apologize to Thatcher later as a result of miscommunication on his part. Grenada still celebrates the invasion to this day, even though most Americans don’t remember nor learn about it.
This is a list of the American servicemen who died in Grenada:
Ramillies, by Michael McNally, is not a recent book from Osprey Publishing, but I purchased it relatively recently and felt reviewing it would be fine. Published in 2014, this book recounts the Duke of Marlborough’s victory over a Franco-Spanish-Bavarian force in the Flanders campaign of the War of Spanish Succession. “Marlborough’s tactical masterpiece” according to the subtitle, is arguably more important than the 1704 Battle of Blenheim since Ramillies effectively destroyed all resistance of Bourbon forces in the Low Countries in a spectacular battle with wonderful tactics by Marlborough’s Allied force.
McNally does a fantastic job with the ORBAT in this book, listing the origins of each regiment in the battle and the number of battalions. Each brigade and division lists the number of troops in the formation as well as divisional and brigade commanders. The illustrations by Sean O’Brogain are wonderful and very dynamic, showing all aspects of the battle and are placed very appropriately in accordance with the text. Sometimes Osprey doesn’t do this well, but it is spot on with Ramillies. The pictures always show what is going on during the battle and reflect specific events talked about, like the routing Bourbon right or the wounding of James Gardiner. There are some very nice prints put in the book as well as some really nice photographs of the Ramillies battlefield. The maps in this book are very well done too.
The chronology section is lacking and quite complex, so I was dissapointed in that. The book also makes a big deal out of the battlefield being less flat than you’d expect, but the maps are still really flat. It’s just contradicting. Apart from that, there really aren’t any problems with this.
I enjoyed this book, especially since I don’t know too much about the War of Spanish Succession. Osprey does a good job with this one, and McNally also does a good job, especially with the order of battle. There’s a lot of interesting tactics and descriptions of the contrasting styles of warfare from the French and Allied forces.
Also, if you want to see the illustrator, Sean O’Brogain, travelling around Ramillies, please visit his blog here.
The common theme of “Wars of Succession” in the 18th century affected Spain, Austria, and even Poland. However, the War of Bavarian Succession (1778-79) is widely overlooked by most. It did shape the basis for Napoleonic Central Europe in the upcoming years of turmoil on the Continent.
The Austrians had suffered defeat in their own War of Succession in the 1740s, but Maria Theresa still kept her throne. One of the main parts of Austrian lands they lost was Silesia, a strip of modern-day Poland which belonged to Prussia. When Maria Theresa gave up her title as Holy Roman Empress, the throne passed to her son Joseph II, who wanted to revive Austrian influence in Germany. His reforms of the Austrian military cast a shadow over his reign, as many Austrians were filled with discontent. The situation in the Empire was tense: they wanted to restate their claim as the most important German nation and also reclaim land lost in the Seven Years’ War and War of Austrian Succession.
In December of 1777, the Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian III, died and caused a power vacuum akin to previous problems of succession. Charles Theodore became the new ruler and ceded Bavaria to the Austrians in exchange for the Austrian Netherlands. Joseph II’s pressure on Charles caused the deal to go through, much to Prussia’s disgust. Prussia backed Charles August, Duke of Zweibrucken, and countered the Austrians. When Imperial troops occupied Bavaria, Frederick II declared war. Joseph II led his troops against the Prussians, but no real engagements were fought. Most were simple supply raids through the winter, which led the war to be known as either the “Potato War” or the “Plum Scrum.” Many soldiers on both sides died of starvation in the frigid winters or of diseases which ravaged camps. The Austrians and Prussians lost a combined 39,000 men and 5,000 horses in a war with no major battles.In May of 1779, the aging Maria Theresa intervened, as she was still ‘King’ of Bohemia and Hungary (the throne was legally supposed to be occupied by a man). She organised a separate peace with Frederick, and the war came to a close. Charles Theodore was kept on the throne of Bohemia but Austria would renounce her claims to Bavaria.
Here are the French troops I made for the Crimean War. The third major contingent in the war, French troops fought alongside the British for one of the first instances in their history. They hadn’t fought on the same side since the War of the Quadruple Alliance.
France’s Ancien Regime (France with kings) lasted for thousands of years, but when most people talk about it, they refer to the 18th century. Since flags were such an important part of the 18th century battlefield, I will be exploring the French infantry flags of this period.
The majority of infantry during the 17th century was line infantry. These regiments had the most men and were recruited from all over France. The French had two flags for their regiments: the colonel’s colour and the regimental colour. The colonel’s flag was all white, with a cross in the middle of it. White was the main colour of the Bourbon dynasty of France, so their flags reflected this. The regimental flag was the same except each canton on the side was colored in different shades. Normandy’s regiment had yellow on all four. Auvergne had black and purple cantons; black was in the top left and bottom right.
Some regiments had more complex designs on their flags with zigzagged lines, fleurs-de-lys, or other markings. Nice’s regiment had waved blue lines on a red background, symbolizing its proximity with the sea. Many regiments that were named after the Bourbons or kings had fleurs-de-lys on their cross. The Du Roi Infantrie had 48 gold fleurs on their flag as well as “Per Dercori Virtus” written on it. The Soissonais had yellow diagonal lines in each of its blue cantons, while the Ile-de-France regiment had black triangles facing outward on a light brown background.
The French Irish Brigade had their own characteristic flags with the traditional French style. The main flag had two red cantons running top right to bottom left. Each canton had a large gold crown and a harp in the join of the cross. The flags said “Hoc in Signo Vinces” (With this sign, we conquer) in gold lettering on the red cross. The other cantons would be regimental. The Rooth Regiment was simply a cross of St. George with a golden lion and crown in the centre. The Duke of Berwicks’ had no crowns, but 4 green cantons with red diagonal lines. The colonel’s flag was the same as the other flags except in white.
The Flag of the Bulkeley Regiment
The Gardes Françaises were the ultimate regiment of French guards, founded in the mid 16th century. Their dark blue coats had red facings and were commanded by a French Lt.-General. The colonel colour was the simple, white French pattern but on each branch of the cross, there was a golden crown. Their regular colour was blue with a white cross akin to the colonel’s one, except there were 180 small fleurs-de-lys.
The Swiss Guards followed the Franco-Swiss format of flags. The colonel’s colour was all white, as per usual, except in the regimental one, there was a collection of rays on each canton. They were orange, purple-blue, black, and red. These bright flags were used by all other Swiss units, but their regimental colours were different colours.
The 10 Swiss regiments all used the same design as the Swiss Guards, but some were more complex. The Diesbach regiment had “Fidelite et Honeur” on their black, yellow, and red flags. Their colonel’s colour had many small fleurs de lys on it. Others had slogans or crowns on their colonel’s colours.
The French had many other foreign regiments with interesting colours. The Royal Bavarian Regiment’s regimental flag had a white and red border with a smaller cross in white on a light blue field. Inside the cross were fleurs-de-lys. The colonel’s colour had the Virgin Mary in the centre. The La Marck Regiment had wite and red checkers surrounding a blue square with three fleurs, a crown, and golden laurels.
There are so many other French flags, but of course, I cannot describe them all. I encourage you to look up more of these flags, because they are so interesting!